Sensing and sensitizer activation by biological thiols and 1,2-dioxetanes based chemiluminescence probes
Biologically important biothiols like Cystein (Cys), Homocystein (Hcy) and Glutathione (GSH) are vital for the maintenance of cellular redox status and alterations in their levels is linked to a number of severe diseases such as AIDS, cancer and Alzheimer‟s therefore the design and synthesis of nitroolefin functionalized bodipy dyes responding to biological thiols by both absorbance and emission changes have been accomplished. Through the incorporation of hydrophilic groups, bright signaling of biothiols in the longer wavelength region of the visible spectrum is deemed to operate in biological environment. With this knowledge, bioconjugation of the nitroolefin functionalized dyes with thiol groups like those belonging to cysteine residues on proteins has been proved via large spectral changes and targeted to visualize dynamics of proteins, cell-cell interactions, mechanisms of life cycles of proteins. Hence, the result suggests that nitroolefin functionalization of BODIPY dyes is a promising way to sense biological thiols and hence labeling proteins having thiol groups. Since GSH plays vital roles in the oxidative stress exists within the cells and thus, high concentration of it is the indication of cancer development, design and synthesis of cancer related parameter based activation of bodipy based photosensitizers have been achieved to enhance spatiotemporal selectivity in photonic sensitization of dissolved molecular oxygen and thus, improves the potential and practice of photodynamic therapy and their effectiveness are validated by cell culture studies. Chemiluminescence in principle can provide a rapid, qualitative and/or quantitative test for analytes of interest; because of that synthesis of novel probes for the sensing of biologically important (fluoride) anion have been devised to combine the power of chemiluminescence and self immolative amplifiers which offers a chemical avenue for enhancing the signal produced in response to a given analyte. Through the development of chemiluminogenic perspective for sensing of palladium ions, rapid and selective response of probe to palladium ions with regardless of their charge in aqueous environment have been accomplished. Considering the convenience of the methods and substantial results, we are confident that other probes combining the power of chemiluminescence will emerge.