Fast and accurate computation of two-dimensional non-separable quadratic-phase integrals
We report a fast and accurate algorithm for numerical computation of two-dimensional non-separable linear canonical transforms (2D-NS-LCTs). Also known as quadratic-phase integrals, this class of integral transforms represents a broad class of optical systems including Fresnel propagation in free space, propagation in gradedindex media, passage through thin lenses, and arbitrary concatenations of any number of these, including anamorphic/astigmatic/non- orthogonal cases. The general two-dimensional non-separable case poses several challenges which do not exist in the one-dimensional case and the separable two-dimensional case. The algorithm takes ∼ñ log ñ time, where ñ is the two-dimensional space-bandwidth product of the signal. Our method properly tracks and controls the space-bandwidth products in two dimensions, in order to achieve information theoretically sufficient, but not wastefully redundant, sampling required for the reconstruction of the underlying continuous functions at any stage of the algorithm. Additionally, we provide an alternative definition of general 2D-NS-LCTs that shows its kernel explicitly in terms of its ten parameters, and relate these parameters bidirectionally to conventional ABCD matrix parameters.