Fulminant viral hepatitis in two siblings with inherited IL-10RB deficiency

Date
2022-10-29
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Source Title
Journal of Clinical Immunology
Print ISSN
02719142
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Publisher
Springer
Volume
43
Issue
2
Pages
406 - 420
Language
English
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Abstract

Fulminant viral hepatitis (FVH) caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a life-threatening disease that typically strikes otherwise healthy individuals. The only known genetic etiology of FVH is inherited IL-18BP deficiency, which unleashes IL-18-dependent lymphocyte cytotoxicity and IFN-γ production. We studied two siblings who died from a combination of early-onset inflammatory bowel disease (EOIBD) and FVH due to HAV. The sibling tested was homozygous for the W100G variant of IL10RB previously described in an unrelated patient with EOIBD. We show here that the out-of-frame IL10RB variants seen in other EOIBD patients disrupt cellular responses to IL-10, IL-22, IL-26, and IFN-λs in overexpression conditions and in homozygous cells. By contrast, the impact of in-frame disease-causing variants varies between cases. When overexpressed, the W100G variant impairs cellular responses to IL-10, but not to IL-22, IL-26, or IFN-λ1, whereas cells homozygous for W100G do not respond to IL-10, IL-22, IL-26, or IFN-λ1. As IL-10 is a potent antagonist of IFN-γ in phagocytes, these findings suggest that the molecular basis of FVH in patients with IL-18BP or IL-10RB deficiency may involve excessive IFN-γ activity during HAV infections of the liver. Inherited IL-10RB deficiency, and possibly inherited IL-10 and IL-10RA deficiencies, confer a predisposition to FVH, and patients with these deficiencies should be vaccinated against HAV and other liver-tropic viruses. © 2022, The Author(s).

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