Synthesis and comprehensive in vivo activity profiling of Olean-12-en-28-ol, 3β-Pentacosanoate in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: A natural remyelinating and anti-inflammatory agent
Multiple sclerosis (MS) treatment has received much attention, yet there is still no certain cure. We herein investigate the therapeutic effect of olean-12-en-28-ol, 3β-pentacosanoate (OPCA) on a preclinical model of MS. First, OPCA was synthesized semisynthetically and characterized. Then, the mice with MOG35-55-induced experimental autoimmune/allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) were given OPCA along with a reference drug (FTY720). Biochemical, cellular, and molecular analyses were performed in serum and brain tissues to measure anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective responses. OPCA treatment protected EAE-induced changes in mouse brains maintaining blood-brain barrier integrity and preventing inflammation. Moreover, the protein and mRNA levels of MS-related genes such as HLD-DR1, CCL5, TNF-α, IL6, and TGFB1 were significantly reduced in OPCA-treated mouse brains. Notably, the expression of genes, including PLP, MBP, and MAG, involved in the development and structure of myelin was significantly elevated in OPCA-treated EAE. Furthermore, therapeutic OPCA effects included a substantial reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines in the serum of treated EAE animals. Lastly, following OPCA treatment, the promoter regions for most inflammatory regulators were hypermethylated. These data support that OPCA is a valuable and appealing candidate for human MS treatment since OPCA not only normalizes the pro- and anti-inflammatory immunological bias but also stimulates remyelination in EAE.