Chitosan polysaccharide suppress toll like receptor dependent immune response
Objectives: Chitosan is a widely used vaccine or anti-cancer delivery vehicle. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effect of chitosan/pIC nanocomplexes on mouse immune cells. Materials and methods: Proliferative and cytotoxic features of chitosan were tested via CCK-8 assay on RAW 264. 7. IL-1β production was assessed via ELISA from PEC supernatants. TNF-α, and NO induction from chitosan treated RAW cells detected by ELISA and Griess assay, respectively. mRNA message levels of TLRs and cytokines on macrophages in response to chitosan/pIC nanocomplex treatments were evaluated by RT-PCR. Results: Results revealed that chitosan is non-toxic to cells, however, proliferative capacities of macrophages were reduced by chitosan administration. Mouse PECs treated with chitosan, led to NLRP3 dependent inflammasome activation as evidenced by dose-dependent IL-1β secretion. Chitosan/pIC nanocomplexes did not improve immunostimulatory action of pIC on RAW cells, since TNF-α and NO productions remained unaltered. Expression levels of several TLRs, CXCL-16 and IFN-α messages from mouse splenocytes were down regulated in response to chitosan/pIC nanocomplex treatment. Conclusion: Our results revealed that chitosan is an anti-proliferative and inflammasome triggering macromolecule on immune cells. Utilization of chitosan as a carrier system is of concern for immunotherapeutic applications. © 2015 Turkish Journal of Immunology.