Three-dimensional integral imaging based capture and display system using digital programmable Fresnel lenslet arrays

Onural, Levent
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Bilkent University
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A Fresnel lenslet array pattern is written on a phase-only LCoS spatial light modulator device (SLM) to replace the regular analog lenslet array in a conventional integral imaging system. We theoretically analyze the capture part of the proposed system based on Fresnel wave propagation formulation. Due to pixelation and quantization of the lenslet array pattern, higher diffraction orders and multiple focal points emerge. Because of the multiple focal planes introduced by the discrete lenslets, multiple image planes are observed. The use of discrete lenslet arrays also causes some other artefacts on the recorded elemental images. The results reduce to those available in the literature when the effects introduced by the discrete nature of the lenslets are omitted. We performed simulations of the capture part. It is possible to obtain the elemental images with an acceptable visual quality. We also constructed an optical integral imaging system with both capture and display parts using the proposed discrete Fresnel lenslet array written on a SLM. Optical results, when self-luminous objects, such as an LED array, are used indicate that the proposed system yields satisfactory results. The resulting system consisting of digital lenslet arrays offers a flexible integral imaging system. Thus, to increase the visual performance of the system, previously available analog solutions can now be implemented digitally by using electro-optical devices. We also propose a method and present applications of this method that converts a diffraction pattern into an elemental image set in order to display them on a display-only integral imaging setup. We generate elemental images based on diffraction calculations as an alternative to commonly used ray tracing methods. Ray tracing methods do not accommodate the interference and diffraction phenomena. Our proposed method enables us to obtain elemental images from a holographic recording of a 3D object/scene. The diffraction pattern can be either numerically generated or digitally acquired from optical input. The method shows the connection between a hologram (diffraction pattern) of a 3D object and an elemental image set of the same 3D object. We obtained optical reconstructions with a display-only integral imaging setup where we used a digital lenslet array. We also obtained numerical reconstructions, again by using the diffraction calculations, for comparison. The digital and optical reconstruction results are in good agreement. Finally, we showed a method to obtain an orthoscopic image of a 3D object. We converted an elemental image set that gives real pseudoscopic reconstruction into another elemental image set that gives real orthoscopic reconstruction. Again, we used wave propagation simulations for this purpose. We also demonstrated numerical and optical reconstructions from the obtained elemental image sets for comparison. The results are satisfactory given the physical limitations of the display system.

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Imaging systems, multiple imaging, three-dimensional image acquisition
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