Differentiation of domains in composite surface structures by charge-contrast x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
An external bias is applied to two samples containing composite surface structures, while recording an XPS spectrum. Altering the polarity of the bias affects the extent of differential charging in domains that are chemically or electronically different to create a charge contrast. By utilizing this charge contrast, we show that two distinct silicon nitride and silicon oxynitride domains are present in one of the composite samples. Similarly, we use this technique to show that titanium oxide and silicon oxide domains exist as separate chemical entities in another composite sample. © 2007 American Chemical Society.