Frequency responses of ground-penetrating radars operating over highly lossy grounds
The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used to investigate the effects of highly lossy grounds and the frequency-band selection on ground-penetrating-radar (GPR) signals. The ground is modeled as a heterogeneous half space with arbitrary background permittivity and conductivity. The heterogeneities encompass both embedded scatterers and surface holes, which model the surface roughness. The decay of the waves in relation to the conductivity of the ground is demonstrated. The detectability of the buried targets is investigated with respect to the operating frequency of the GPR, the background conductivity of the ground, the density of the conducting inhomogeneities in the ground, and the surface roughness. The GPR is modeled as transmitting and receiving antennas isolated by conducting shields, whose inner walls are coated with absorbers simulated by perfectly matched layers (PML). The feed of the transmitter is modeled by a single-cell dipole with constant current density in its volume. The time variation of the current density is selected as a smooth pulse with arbitrary center frequency, which is referred to as the operating frequency of the GPR.