Item EmbargoPivoting on the church of St. John Exoteichos: from the empire to modern Trabzon(Bilkent University, 2023-09) Demet, Gönülnur; Özcan, Burcu ŞenyapılıPresently, the quantity of Byzantine and post-Byzantine churches that remained within the city center of Trabzon is quite limited. Additionally, aside from significant exceptions like the Hagia Sophia of Trebizond, numerous structures remain unfamiliar to the local community and have been repurposed for various uses. Byzantine and post-Byzantine studies in Turkey tend to focus on other centers and the heritage of Trebizond, a peripheral site with exceptional characteristics, receives less attention. The present research focuses on St. John Exoteichos, earlier known as Agios Ioannes tes Petra, and its neighborhood, Sotka, with a diachronic approach. Built in the 13th/14th century, St. John Exoteichos was rebuilt by Metropolitan Konstantios in the 19th century. From the early 20th century onward, the church, once part of a complex with an adjacent Greek school building, briefly functioned as a warehouse during the Republican period. Subsequently, it transformed into a versatile hall for the neighboring primary school. The study focuses on three different periods, and it illustrates the continuities, changes, and transformations in the design and use of the church building throughout, regarding the region's political, architectural, and social dynamics. This thesis aims at contributing academic literature by exploring the church's historical, architectural, and urban dimensions. The study of St. John Exoteichos, particularly its 19th-century version, offers a novel perspective within Trabzon's Byzantine and post-Byzantine heritage. Item Open AccessA study on shell structures through a comparative case study analysis(Bilkent University, 2023-08) Ejaz, Khawaja Talha; Haznedaroğlu, Aysu BerkShell structures in architecture have been a topic of interest for both architects and engineers. As they do not only provide aesthetic architectural spaces but also provide efficient engineering solutions to cover larger areas. This thesis examines the historical development of shell structures and analyzes the classification of contemporary shell forms as pure shells. A comparative study of form-finding methodologies and structural systems based on fundamental shell principles is conducted, considering advancements in design techniques. The research investigates the differences in form-finding methods between historical and contemporary shell structures and their impact on design and construction. The role of auxiliary support systems in contemporary shells and their effect on classification as pure forms are explored. A categorization based on structural systems is proposed to distinguish between historical and contemporary interpretations, accounting for complexity, integration of non-shell elements, and auxiliary support systems. The analysis of structural systems focuses on load-bearing mechanisms, load paths and shell type in terms of original shell behavior in each case study. Findings highlight the shared characteristics, disparities, and patterns in form-finding methods and structural systems. The implications of deviations from historical shell principles in contemporary cases are assessed in relation to their classification as pure shell forms. Furthermore, the degree of adherence to fundamental principles is discussed. The primary objective was to gain a deeper understanding of form-finding techniques, structural systems, and functionality in shell structures over the years. Through this investigation, the research aims to determine how closely contemporary shell structures align with the fundamental principles of historical shell structures. Through an extensive literature review and examination of historical and contemporary case studies, this thesis offers a comprehensive understanding of shell structure evolution. Item Open AccessBiobased sound absorptive panel system design and development using fruit seeds(Bilkent University, 2023-09) Tarman, Damla; Gül, Zühre SüIn order to reduce the carbon footprint due to currently applied sound absorptive materials in the building construction field, alternative sustainable systems are investigated in this research. By re-using the waste fruit seeds that are abundant in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey, a composite panel system is developed to be applied in buildings as a fine finish surface, like a wall or ceiling panel. The raw material is composed of various fruit seeds, including cherry, watermelon, olive, etc. The tree resin is combined with wood fire ash as a natural adhesive. The efficacy of the adhesive property is the subject of biological adhesive research. Wood glue is utilized as an alternative to other adhesive materials; it is considered more efficient in material production due to its practicality and accessibility. The varied combinations of seeds, tree resin, and wood glue have been tested through impedance tube measurements, and sound absorption coefficient data are acquired. To test the efficiency of produced samples, one with the maximum sound absorption performance is tested in the design studio at Bilkent University based on the data obtained, which is a current acoustic problem due to very high reverberance. An acoustical model is generated replicating the problematic studio, and the panel system is tested through ray-tracing simulations. On the generated studio model, the panel system is applied to specific surfaces, and reverberation times for the current and adjusted state of the studio is compared. The results indicate that the panels out of seeds combined with proper adhesives have a potential to be applied as a sound absorptive decorative system in various architectural spaces. Item Open AccessSpatial-making of urban populism: The case of post-gezi Taksim(Bilkent University, 2023-08) Kaynar, Melek; Batuman, BülentThis thesis explores public participation in the production of space through the recent history of Taksim Square, analyzing the “Taksim Square Urban Design Competition” (2020) and the structure “Kavuşma Durağı” (2020). The thesis refers to Chantal Mouffe’s discussions on the democratic possibilities of populism (left populist strategy) and examines the role of left “urban” populism in repairing democratic values. Asking the question, “What kind of a role can space design play in contributing to democratic urban politics?” the study addresses design competitions with voting systems through discussions about public participation. Linking the recent participatory design attempts with Gezi Protests, the thesis reframes the production of “public space” through “urban populism” in the Turkish context. As examples of left urban populism, those space-making initiations mediate the repair of democracy by improving public contestation and dissensus concepts in the urban sphere and discursive space, and they provide re-politicization of governance and citizens. Item EmbargoImpact of intermediate and informal adaptations on the reuse of post-industrial sites: from Hasanpaşa Gasworks to Müze Gazhane(Bilkent University, 2023-08) Leblebici, Elif; Gasco, GiorgioOnce serving as pivotal urban epicenters, due to de-industrialization, many industrial sites have become obsolete. These post-industrial sites constitute both a challenge and an opportunity for the urban landscapes. Within this context, the notion of industrial heritage emerged, leading to research and applications focusing on reintegrating these structures and sites. One of the practices of these efforts is adaptive reuse, a strategy for utilizing existing structures for contemporary purposes. To contribute to the literature on adaptive reuse, this thesis investigates the informal and intermediate utilization of post-industrial sites, focusing the case of adaptive reuse of İstanbul’s Hasanpaşa Gasworks (1891-1993) as Müze Gazhane (2021-). Considering both the processes and the results of adaptive reuse practices, the study highlights the significance of informal and intermediate utilizations. In the study, informal and intermediate utilizations guided by diverse stakeholders such as artists, NGOs, and communities are handled as practical aspects of the complex means to realize the reintegration of abandoned post-industrial sites. Building upon the data collected through archival research, surveys, and on-site observations on Müze Gazhane, the thesis argues that diversified reintegration efforts have the potential to enable the revival of post-industrial sites as significant public spaces and dynamic epicenters. Item Open AccessGendered urban imaginations: literary representations of Lahore and Heera Mandi(Bilkent University, 2023-08) Jamil, Maryam; Batuman, BülentLahore is culturally and architecturally one of the wealthiest cities in the South Asian sub-continent. It has seen its days of glory and days of obscurity. From Mughal Emperors to the colonialization of the British to the nationalism of Pakistani leaders, it has witnessed drastic changes in its cultures, architecture, and urban spaces. These changes were due to either religious, political, or social reasons. This thesis deals with two significant eras in Lahore's history that shaped the cultural identity of the city; Colonial Lahore (1858-1947) and post-colonial Lahore (1970-present). The thesis explores how the urban sphere of Lahore was imagined by different genders in the colonial and post-colonial periods. It scrutinizes the literature, memoirs, and archives of the people experiencing the city at their respective ages. It explores how these experiences varied for gender and whether it was equally an ideal space by respective genders. It also discusses the effects of one of the biggest red-light districts in the sub-continent, Heera Mandi (Diamond Market), on the city's urban space and religious culture before and after the independence from the British. Furthermore, the thesis investigates the interaction between power, patriarchy, and urban development in Lahore's postcolonial modernization attempts. Authors such as Bapsi Sidhwa, Sara Suleri, Louise Brown and Mohsin Hamid's postcolonial fiction give unique insights into minority worries, women and Khawajasira’s struggles, and the clash between tradition and modernity as impacted by political events and cultural transformations. The study improves our knowledge of Lahore's gender dynamics and their consequences for urban development by analyzing these representations. Item Open AccessTranscultural dwelling: an exploration of finnish and Japanese influences in Alvar Aalto’s design of Villa Mairea(Bilkent University, 2023-07) Karakaya, Ceylin; Gasco, GiorgioThis research examines the influence of Finnish and Japanese dwelling cultures in the design of Villa Mairea, a pivotal work of the architect Alvar Aalto. The problem statement revolves around the need to understand how Aalto integrated two distinct dwelling cultures into a single architectural expression, diverging from the dominant rationalism of his era. The research employs qualitative analysis of architectural elements in Villa Mairea, interviews, memoirs, and examination of Aalto’s personal library, revealing an intricate interplay of Finnish and Japanese influences. Results indicate that Aalto achieved a profound synthesis of Finnish and Japanese dwelling cultures, resulting in an architectural language rich in ma-terial sensuality, subsequently becoming synonymous with Nordic architecture. The design principles inherent in Villa Mairea demonstrate the philosophies of Regionalism and Critical Regionalism, balancing local cultural elements with uni-versal modernist principles. The conclusion drawn from the research provides substantial implications for architectural theory and practice, suggesting the potential for architects to create contextually grounded and transcultural-informed architecture. The study also opens avenues for further research in the field of sensory architecture, the role of transcultural influences in other architectural works, and comparative studies on different architects’ approaches to cultural integration. Item EmbargoDeep reinforcement learning for urban modeling: morphogenesis simulation of self-organized settlements(Bilkent University, 2023-07) H'sain, Houssame Eddine; Özcan, Burcu ŞenyapılıSelf-organized modes of urban growth could result in high-quality urban space and have notable benefits such as providing affordable housing and wider access to economic opportunities within cities. Modeling this non-linear, complex, and dynamic sequential urban aggregation process requires adaptive sequential decision-making. In this study, a deep reinforcement learning (DRL) approach is proposed to automatically learn these adaptive decision policies to generate self-organized settlements that maximize a certain performance objective. A framework to formulate the self-organized settlement morphogenesis problem as single-agent reinforcement learning (RL) environment is presented. This framework is then verified by developing three environments based on two cellular automata urban growth models and training RL agents using the Deep Q-learning (DQN) and Proximal Policy Optimization (PPO) algorithms to learn sequential urban aggregation policies that maximize performance metrics within those environments. The agents consistently learn to sequentially grow the settlements while adapting their morphology to maximize performance, maintain right-of-way, and adapt to topographic constraints. The method proposed in this study can be used not only to model self-organized settlement growth based on preset performance objectives but also could be generalized to solve various single-agent sequential decision-making generative design problems. Item Open AccessInfluences of structural systems on form and space integrity of free-form buildings: an investigation through case studies(Bilkent University, 2023-07) Oktar, Nadide Pınar; Haznedaroğlu, Aysu BerkFree-form architecture is a contemporary design language that challenges traditional geometric forms in architectural design. It is characterized by its complex and irregular shapes, which are mainly achieved through advanced digital design and fabrication technologies. However, free-form buildings may overly prioritize form over structural rationality and spatial quality because of their irregular nature. Therefore, the potentials and limitations of their flexibility need to be investigated through the architectural components, structure, form, and space. This thesis investigates the potential of structural systems which are an aesthetic and inventive medium for shaping and experiencing free-form buildings. It is intended to determine and evaluate structural systems' influences on form and space integrity of free-form buildings. With this framework, seventeen selected pioneering free-form buildings are investigated through an in-depth analysis that is resulted in a tabular report which involves specific structural, formal, and spatial analysis with a general assessment part. As a result, it has been determined that the design process for a free-form building needs to be more integrated to ensure the integrity of form and space. Moreover, the findings indicate that contemporary free-form buildings contain overly complex hierarchical structural organization, such as primary and secondary systems. Consequently, designing structural systems that seamlessly integrate with such buildings' form and spatial configurations necessitates a distinct perspective and specialized design knowledge. In line with these findings, this thesis suggests that an integrated design process should be supported by a comprehensive knowledge and understanding of structural systems, their hierarchical organization and how they simultaneously effect formal and spatial configurations. Item Open AccessNegotiating archeology and urbanization at Bodrum peninsula(Bilkent University, 2022-08) Gülşen, Meltem Nur; Batuman, BülentThe archaeological heritage is the non-renewable part of the ongoing process from the past to the future. Nevertheless, tourism related rapid urbanization is experienced especially in coastal regions of Turkey since the 1980s. Therefore, this study aims to create a broader perspective to evaluate archaeological heritage in tourism destinations to create early measures for conserving archaeological heritage. Cultural landscape concept provides a wider perspective to analyze Bodrum peninsula. Therefore, layers of the geography (topography, ground cover, soil, and water data), built environment, (settlement areas, transportation network and land use) and protected areas, are created using the QGIS program, which helps to create various data sets by superposing layers. Archaeological site layer, and the urbanization process analysis (1985-2022) is combined to identify archaeological sites in rapid urbanization zones. The vicinity of Myndos is one of the rapidly urbanized regions. Myndos is located in the Gümüşlük neighbourhood and is directly influenced from the settlement growth of Peksimet neighbourhood. Therefore, in-situ observation, land use, inventory map and urbanization process analyses were combined on Gümüşlük and Peksimet. The results demonstrate that tourism-related urbanization in Gümüşlük and Peksimet continues rapidly risking the archaeological remains. On the other hand, archaeological sites could not be conserved. Therefore, a conceptual proposal is developed to ensure the conservation-use balance in tourism destinations. Concept of buffer zone and slow tourism was proposed for sustainable development of Gümüşlük and Peksimet neighbourhoods. Item Open AccessProspects, policies and practices of mass housing in Turkey, 1960s – 1980s: housing the middle class with the Sincan – Elvanköy New Town experiment(Bilkent University, 2022-08) Demir, Buse; Gasco, GiorgioThe thesis comparatively examines the mutual dynamics of the housing problem in distinctive settings to track the traces of housing policies and practices in Turkey. After the proclamation of the Republic, the housing problem gained momentum with the relocation of the bureaucratic nucleus to the capital Ankara. In order to compose the life patterns of the national bourgeoisie in this city, housing policies were oriented toward the aspirations of the bureaucrats and civil servants, constituting the backbone of the middle-class in Turkey. The government enacted particular policies and established distinctive institutions to operate and finance housing production; these initiatives primarily contributed to the individual efforts of the middle-class in Ankara until the end of the Second World War. In the meantime, the housing supply flourished with cooperatives, mass housing companies, local authorities, yap-satçı and gecekondu in response to the rapid urbanization of the city center. Therefore, middle-class families preferred mass housing settlements in uncharted territories of Ankara, accelerating the formation of satellite cities disconnected from the urban centers. The prominent mass housing practices reframe the discourses and debates connected with the new middle-class as an emerging social component that claimed attention in Ankara after the 1960s. With the particular interest in the suburban mass housing experiment for the middle-class in Ankara after the 1980s, the thesis investigates Sincan – Elvanköy New Town to manifest intertwined dynamics of the national and international architectural debate. Sincan – Elvanköy New Town achieved a breakthrough considering the direct connection with the railway and highway, integrating the mass housing settlement and the urban fabric on a nodal point. Therefore, the aim of the thesis is to investigate and demonstrate the evolving dynamics of the housing problem in architectural discourse, pondering on mass housing settlements as the core discussion in the architectural agenda of Turkey in the 1960s–1980s. Item Open AccessFemale experience of space: readings from two novels(Bilkent University, 2022-08) Erdoğan, İlknur; Gasco, GiorgioThis thesis aims to reveal the spatial experience of Turkish women throughout time in the light of cultural and political changes in space and society through analysis of novels. The lived spaces are the loci of human beings and individuals’ everyday lives are staged in and around the lived space. The politics of gender difference is one of the most significant variables in one's experience and perception of space. Turkish context, having experienced multiple politics, regimes, and autonomous movements for women's liberation, provides a significant case for the research of gender-space relationships in various periods. By analyzing Hiçbiri (1921) by Suat Derviş and Kadının Adı Yok (1987) by Duygu Asena, the thesis attempts to highlight the multi-layered dimensions of the lived spaces with a feminist perspective. Two novels are chosen to depict the conditions in the first-wave feminist period at the end of the Ottoman Empire and the second-wave feminist period in the Turkish Republic after the 1980s. The research uses narrative analysis to enable a multi-disciplinary viewpoint combining the disciplines of architecture, literature, geography, and sociology. The analysis provides insight into spaces and demonstrations of women's everyday life, as well as into political and cultural influences on women's performance in public and private spaces. The main argument is that internalized socio-cultural norms, regulations and masculine control have an immense impact on women’s experience and perception of space even when the socio-political milieu implies progression in theory. Item EmbargoUtzon’s Middle East: The reinterpretation of the traditional Middle Eastern architecture in the work of Jørn Utzon(Bilkent University, 2022-08) Yılgın, Cem; Chiu, Chen-YuMiddle Eastern ideas had a remarkable influence on Utzon’s artistry besides other non-European cultures, as seen in his manifestations and architectural works. However, the effects of Middle Eastern building culture on Utzon’s career have not been carefully investigated. In this manner, this thesis aims to explore the reinterpretation of Middle Eastern ideas in Utzon’s work to reveal his cross-cultural position and trans-cultural intention. It argues that the Middle East provided ideas to Utzon over his lifetime career, and gave inspiration for the manipulation of his ideas and ideals. Regarding this context, the research firstly examines Utzon’s Middle East through his social and cultural background by surveying his readings and study trips and reviewing his manifestoes, project descriptions, and edited materials. Secondly, Utzon’s early perception of the Middle East was illuminated with built-form analogies, such as the Sydney Opera House and Masjid-i Jamii of Isfahan, the Melli Bank and Masjid-i Shaikh Lotfollah, the Silkeborg Museum and Bazaar of Kashan. Thirdly, the transformation of Utzon’s ideas and ideals between his two manifestos, the 1962 “Plateaus and Platforms” and 1970 “Additive Architecture”, is investigated by highlighting the limitations and strengths of a series of buildings and projects. Fourthly and finally, Utzon’s seminal project proposal for the Farum Town Center is examined as a case study to reveal the role of the Middle East in his “additive” theme. Utzon’s receiving of the Middle East, specifically through the Grand Bazaar of Isfahan, could reflect Utzon’s manipulation of a group of ideas to resolve the limitations of his earlier projects, seen in the Farum Town Center proposal. Item Open AccessArchipelago as a tool to study urban form: the case of Ankara(Bilkent University, 2022-08) Güngör, Ezgi Nur; Gasco, GiorgioIn the literature on urban morphology, the city and urbanization are considered two antithetical forms since urbanization as a term was coined by Cerda. There is a dichotomy between the practices of these two terms regarding the physical form of the city. This formative dichotomy covers a variety of tensions arising from architectural production processes. In the context of urban morphology, the contemporary city can be defined as a meeting of those spatial contradictions depending on architectural form. Typology is a discourse including different formative theories that could reveal those contradictions and enhance urban morphology analyses. Within those theories, autonomous form is the one that aims to create an independent abstract language of the physical form by isolating it from the other practices that influence the urban form. Under the influence of the theory of autonomous form, the literature of urban morphology contains several concepts as a result of different attempts to explore the urban form. “Archipelago” can be described as one of the radical concepts depending on the theory of autonomous form. It is a metaphor to describe architectural formations that emerge as individual forms of aggregations-resembling the islands of an archipelago- based on their typology. Since the beginning of the Turkish Republic, Ankara, as the capital city, has encountered the dichotomy between city and urbanization through different planning periods. Through the planning periods, Ankara has become a laboratory land of urban form, which has accelerated the formative contradictions in the city. Despite those contradictions, Ankara has a considerable domain of autonomous forms in terms of urban morphology. In this context, this thesis attempts to explore the autonomous forms of the city, Ankara, by conceptualizing it as an archipelago. It is also an attempt to transform the diagram of the autonomous forms into a generative matrix that could discover alternative urban form. Item Open AccessPlacemaking during the pandemic: exploring the spaces of celebrations in Turkey through twitter(Bilkent University, 2022-07) Yavuzyiğit, Bilge Begüm; Özcan, Burcu ŞenyapılıThe thesis studies the recent placemaking practices that have been realized during the COVID-19 pandemic in spaces such as balconies and digital space. During the pandemic, due to measures taken to decrease the spread of the virus, citizens have been confined to their homes’ boundaries and to the interaction of their households. Consequently, there have been disruptions in citizens' collective practices within public spaces, rendering the city unclaimed. Yet, longing for community interaction and sense of community, citizens moved their interactions to the digital realm, and subsequently to balconies, to accommodate communal and social practices. Relatedly, one of the prominent collective practices in the urban context of Turkey, national holiday celebrations were also carried out in balconies and digital space. Citizens have organized through Twitter and realized celebration practices in their balconies, to compensate for the gatherings they normally held in public places such as city squared and streets. The expressions of experiences related with the celebrations were also reflected onto the digital realm. Building up on these observations, this study will explore how collective celebration practices in balconies and digital place have led to placemaking of these realms through the case study of Turkey. Based on data gathered from Twitter through specific hashtags and keywords, how the experiences of digital spaces and balconies correspond to placemaking during the pandemic will be discussed. Since official practices of placemaking, the communal place and the process of social production of place have been challenged during the pandemic, the thesis builds up on the idea that revisiting the definition of placemaking can provide new opportunities in understanding how places are made and placemaking is realized in the contemporary world. Thus, by understanding the placemaking of the pandemic the thesis aims to provide a new and revised perspective towards placemaking, by integrating the literature, findings of the thesis and the context of the pandemic to guide further studies. Item Open AccessAcoustical characterization of clay pots in Ottoman architecture through experimental and numerical analysis methods(Bilkent University, 2022-07) Atay, Gülnihan; Gül, Zühre SüEmployment of clay pots as building elements is a common practice especially in the medieval structures throughout Europe and Near East. Despite the fact that their acoustical employment in historic structures is well known and dates back to the 1st century BC as observed in Vitruvius' writings, their true contribution to the acoustics of Medieval Architecture remains to be a subject of discussion. They are also present in Ottoman Architecture including Süleymaniye Mosque designed by Sinan the Architect Laureate. Although these elements placed in the dome of Süleymaniye are often interpreted to be utilized as Helmholtz resonators, a scientific account regarding their sound-absorption performance is needed so as to understand whether they actually perform as cavity resonators. Therefore, the scientific investigation of their acoustical behaviour through analytical, experimental, and numerical analysis methods is necessitated. The objective of this study is to discuss the effects of the clay pots on the sound energy decay pattern of Süleymaniye Mosque. The study begins with an archival research phase covering the versatile employments of clay pots as building elements that are not limited to their acoustical utilization. The study then proceeds with the impedance tube measurements conducted with the reproduced sample of an actual-sized clay pot employed in the structure. The results are then verified with finite element modelling (FEM) simulations. Finally, sound absorption coefficients, obtained from the latter are transferred into the ray tracing simulations so as to understand the pots' effect on reverberation times (T30) in the edifice. In the conclusion part, sound absorption performance of clay pots and their possible contribution to the mosque acoustics are discussed. As a result of the study, the resonance frequency of the clay pots embedded into the central dome of Süleymaniye Mosque is found to be 50 Hz. Additionally, they are also proven to be effective at 500 Hz octave band. Consequently, the ray tracing simulations exhibit a 2 seconds decrease in T30 values at 500 Hz octave band. This also proves the improvement of reverberation time at this octave band range, which was measured after the final restorations of Süleymaniye Mosque with repaired pots. Item Open AccessAssessment of reverberance perception and preferential acoustical conditions in educational atriums(Bilkent University, 2022-07) Naeemaee, Rozhin; Gül, Zühre SüAtriums, with their large spans and superior voids, in modern life have changed their patterns of use from being only circulation zones to multi-functional gathering spaces. One solution to the challenge of transforming atriums to function as multifunctional spaces is optimizing the reverberation time. However, the optimum criteria of reverberation time for atriums have not yet well been set. This causes unnecessary intent of acoustical material applications within contemporary atriums. This study aims to provide a ground for such discussion on the optimum criteria, which can in the future lead to changes in standards and codes. With an aim of defining a proper range for reverberation per function and volume of the space, this research investigates the perception and preference of reverberation metrics (T30, EDT) within the context of educational atriums. The methodology starts with field tests and field surveys within four atriums of different departments at Bilkent University. Acoustical models of the atriums are tuned according to the field tests. Next, interior surface materials are modified for obtaining different sound energy decay rates and auralizations are applied to be used in subjective testing to seek preferential listening conditions. Produced audio clips by auralizations reflect different reverberation settings by the systemically increased amount of absorption, which is grouped for different intervals. An online listening test and questionnaire are held over a sample group of 67 students. Based on the analysis, the audio clips from groups G2 (1.00 s Item Open AccessThe effect of modular systems on spatial design and diversity: analysis through constructed modular buildings(Bilkent University, 2022-07) Sunsal, Beliz; Haznedaroğlu, Aysu BerkModular systems are prefabricated building elements as a product of modern architecture. Compared to conventional methods, modular construction systems can find a place in many different projects with their two- and three-dimensional types, however, they have never become quite popular as an architectural design method. Modular systems, which offer various alternatives in terms of materials and construction methods, are produced as prefabricated; therefore, the problems that may arise during the construction phase and the time for on-site operations are minimized. In this sense, it significantly differs from other techniques in terms of time and work control and provides an advantage. However, modular systems could not provide the necessary place for themselves in the market, and their examples were limited to specific functions and locations. This thesis proposes an analysis method to investigate this problem, through examining the effect of modular systems on spatial design and diversity. In line with this target, this study examines the existing modular building examples worldwide through the number and the distribution of spaces generated, such as public-private zones, circulation areas, and bathrooms. When the relations of these areas with each other and the unit they are located in, are analyzed; it has been observed that the spatial design and diversity vary based on the number of utilized modules and the function of the project. When the shapes of the employed modules, indoor circulation, main entrance, private zones, and the relations of these areas with each other are compared with other examined projects, it is observed that the modular systems do not concentrate on a single type. Since a single type of unit does not have the vast majority, it has been concluded that modular systems have a high potential in terms of spatial diversity and design, they can be used in different projects and functions, but the spatial performance of curvilinear- or organic form-based modules and applicable examples in earthquake zones should also be examined in detail. Item Open AccessThe role of structural systems and building materials in sustainable post-expo use of World Expo pavilions(Bilkent University, 2022-07) Makinacı, İrem Merve; Haznedaroğlu, Aysu BerkWorld Expos are international mega-events, organized to display the industrial achievements of countries while providing social and cultural involvement. Since the 1970s, they have focused on minimizing ecological problems and promoting sustainability with innovations in science and technology. However, due to their mega-scale and ephemeral nature, issues like building boom, oversized infrastructure, and abandoned pavilions have been observed throughout the years, which conflict with their sustainability theme. Since the concerns for the post-event period are generally caused by the lack of initial planning for the post-expo usage, this thesis claims that one of the solutions is a concise configuration of structural systems and materials by considering the further use of pavilions. Therefore, this study aims to reveal what the role of structural system and material configurations is on a sustainable post-expo use. With this aim, the selected pavilions from the World Expos with sustainability-related themes are categorized based on their permanency or temporariness and analyzed regarding four categories of sustainability (functional, environmental, socio-cultural and economic). For the analysis, 15 sustainable features are determined to observe the characteristics of structural system and material configurations related to the post-expo use. Based on the number of sustainable features of each pavilion, the role of structural system and material configurations in post-expo use are evaluated. The results show that for permanent pavilions, structural systems and materials have no or low role in the sustainable post-expo use. On the contrary, they have a significant impact on the efficient post-expo use of temporary pavilions. It is concluded that the well-conceived configuration of structural systems and building materials equipped with innovative sustainable features would allow for more efficient use of resources while minimizing harmful impacts on the environment and reducing energy consumption in construction, dismantling, reusing, and recycling processes. The findings suggest that; in order for World Expos to overcome the issues that arise in the post-expo period, as well as the real-life sustainability problems, all four sustainability categories should be integrated together with the use of innovative solutions by considering the post-expo process in the pavilions' structural system design and material selection. Item Open AccessClaiming mosque space: women’s agency in mosque architecture in contemporary Turkey(Bilkent University, 2022-07) Şenel, Ayşenur; Batuman, BülentTraditionally, there has been an attribution of public spaces to males and private spaces of domesticity to females; moreover, mosques have been patriarchal spaces. Since the 90s, as both Islamism and feminism are on the rise, public places and topics on women’s roles have been reinterpreted. Under the power of an Islamist party, Turkey witnessed an increase in women’s role in mosque architecture in the last 20 years. Mosque projects that consider and welcome women are carried out, and women as mosque designers became visible. Unlike Islamist feminists’ debate around the world, in which the topic is on ‘women-only’, ‘gender-mixed’, and ‘women-focused/women-led’ mosques, in Turkey, the debate has been on the two genders sharing the same space. This research is an inquiry into the changing role of women and their relation to the production of mosque spaces, focusing on Turkey. Firstly, the research focuses on creating a theoretical framework and gives information on gender politics and Islamic space. Later, it looks into women as the agents; users of mosques where they appropriate the men’s space, and designers of mosques and their roles in relation to the authority in mosque architecture. Five different case studies by different female architects or designers are chosen in which they occupy various positions in the mosque design. Field research, observations, architectural analyses, and literature review are done; also, interviews are conducted with the architects. This research aims to contribute to feminist discourse with the inclusion of Muslim women and tries to understand women’s claim and their work on equality in the religious space.