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Item Open Access Algebraic reconstraction for 3D magnetic resonance-electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) using one component of magnetic flux density(Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine, 2004) Ider, Y. Z.; Onart, S.Show more Magnetic resonance-electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) algorithms fall into two categories: those utilizing internal current density and those utilizing only one component of measured magnetic flux density. The latter group of algorithms have the advantage that the object does not have to be rotated in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. A new algorithm which uses only one component of measured magnetic flux density is developed. In this method, the imaging problem is formulated as the solution of a non-linear matrix equation which is solved iteratively to reconstruct resistivity. Numerical simulations are performed to test the algorithm both for noise-free and noisy cases. The uniqueness of the solution is monitored by looking at the singular value behavior of the matrix and it is shown that at least two current injection profiles are necessary. The method is also modified to handle region-of-interest reconstructions. In particular it is shown that, if the image of a certain xy-slice is sought for, then it suffices to measure the z-component of magnetic flux density up to a distance above and below that slice. The method is robust and has good convergence behavior for the simulation phantoms used.Show more Item Open Access Comments on "Ensuring Safety of Implanted Devices Under MRI Using Reversed Polarization"(Wiley, 2011-10-24) Eryaman, Y.; Hersek, S.; Atalar, ErginShow more Item Open Access Current constrained voltage scaled reconstruction (CCVSR) algorithm for MR-EIT and its performance with different probing current patterns(Institute of Physics Publishing, 2003) Birgül, Ö.; Eyüboğlu, B. M.; İder, Y. Z.Show more Conventional injected-current electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques can be combined to reconstruct high resolution true conductivity images. The magnetic flux density distribution generated by the internal current density distribution is extracted from MR phase images. This information is used to form a fine detailed conductivity image using an Ohm's law based update equation. The reconstructed conductivity image is assumed to differ from the true image by a scale factor. EIT surface potential measurements are then used to scale the reconstructed image in order to find the true conductivity values. This process is iterated until a stopping criterion is met. Several simulations are carried out for opposite and cosine current injection patterns to select the best current injection pattern for a 2D thorax model. The contrast resolution and accuracy of the proposed algorithm are also studied. In all simulation studies, realistic noise models for voltage and magnetic flux density measurements are used. It is shown that, in contrast to the conventional EIT techniques, the proposed method has the capability of reconstructing conductivity images with uniform and high spatial resolution. The spatial resolution is limited by the larger element size of the finite element mesh and twice the magnetic resonance image pixel size.Show more Item Open Access Experimental results for 2D magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MR-EIT) using magnetic flux density in one direction(Institute of Physics Publishing, 2003) Birgül, Ö.; Eyüboğlu, B. M.; İder, Y. Z.Show more Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MR-EIT) is an emerging imaging technique that reconstructs conductivity images using magnetic flux density measurements acquired employing MRI together with conventional EIT measurements. In this study, experimental MR-EIT images from phantoms with conducting and insulator objects are presented. The technique is implemented using the 0.15 T Middle East Technical University MRI system. The dc current method used in magnetic resonance current density imaging is adopted. A reconstruction algorithm based on the sensitivity matrix relation between conductivity and only one component of magnetic flux distribution is used. Therefore, the requirement for object rotation is eliminated. Once the relative conductivity distribution is found, it is scaled using the peripheral voltage measurements to obtain the absolute conductivity distribution. Images of several insulator and conductor objects in saline filled phantoms are reconstructed. The L2 norm of relative error in conductivity values is found to be 13%, 17% and 14% for three different conductivity distributions.Show more Item Open Access Josephson effect in superconductive SNS heterostructures with barriers(The American Physical Society, 2003) Cakir, O.; Kulik, I. O.Show more The dc Josephson effect in a planar superconductor-normal-metal-superconductor (SNS) junction is studied in the existence of a δ barrier in the normal region. The Green function of the structure is obtained by solving the Gorkov equations for the structure and then the current is calculated from the Green functions. The effect of the strength and position of the barrier is investigated. The current shows a weak dependence on the position of the barrier and it is seen to be maximum when the barrier is at the middle of the normal region. Also it is found that the current shows a stronger dependence on the strength of the barrier at low temperatures. A comparative discussion of three possible types of Josephson junctions, the SIS, SCS, and SNS contacts, is presented.Show more Item Open Access Manipulation of atoms across a surface at room temperature(Nature Publishing Group, 2000) Fishlock, T. W.; Oral, A.; Egdell, R. G.; Pethica, J. B.Show more Since the realization that the tips of scanning probe microscopes can interact with atoms at surfaces, there has been much interest in the possibility of building or modifying nanostructures or molecules directly from single atoms. Individual large molecules can be positioned on surfaces, and atoms can be transferred controllably between the sample and probe tip. The most complex structures are produced at cryogenic temperatures by sliding atoms across a surface to chosen sites. But there are problems in manipulating atoms laterally at higher temperatures - atoms that are sufficiently well bound to a surface to be stable at higher temperatures require a stronger tip interaction to be moved. This situation differs significantly from the idealized weakly interacting tips of scanning tunnelling or atomic force microscopes. Here we demonstrate that precise positioning of atoms on a copper surface is possible at room temperature. The triggering mechanism for the atomic motion unexpectedly depends on the tunnelling current density, rather than the electric field or proximity of tip and surface.Show more Item Open Access Persistent currents in helical structures(American Physical Society, 2004) Iskin, M.; Kulik, I. O.Show more The recent discovery of mesoscopic electronic structures, in particular the carbon nanotubes, made necessary an investigation of what effect a helical symmetry of the conductor (metal or semiconductor) may have on the persistent current oscillations, We investigate persistent currents in helical structures which are nondecaying in time, not requiring a voltage bias, dissipationless stationary flow of electrons in a normal-metallic or semiconducting cylinder or circular wire of mesoscopic dimension. In the presence of magnetic flux along the toroidal structure, helical symmetry couples circular and longitudinal currents to each other. Our calculations suggest that circular persistent currents in these structures have two components with periods Φ0 and Φ0/s (s is an integer specific to any geometry). However, resultant circular persistent current oscillations have Φ0 period.Show more Item Open Access Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions((AAAS) American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2006) Özbay, EkmelShow more Electronic circuits provide us with the ability to control the transport and storage of electrons. However, the performance of electronic circuits is now becoming rather limited when digital information needs to be sent from one point to another. Photonics offers an effective solution to this problem by implementing optical communication systems based on optical fibers and photonic circuits. Unfortunately, the micrometer-scale bulky components of photonics have limited the integration of these components into electronic chips, which are now measured in nanometers. Surface plasmon-based circuits, which merge electronics and photonics at the nanoscale, may offer a solution to this size-compatibility problem. Here we review the current status and future prospects of plasmonics in various applications including plasmonic chips, light generation, and nanolithography.Show more Item Open Access Uniqueness and reconstruction in magnetic resonance-electrical impedance tomography (MR-EIT)(Institute of Physics Publishing, 2003) İder, Y. Z.; Onart, S.; Lionheart, W. R. B.Show more Magnetic resonance-electrical impedance tomography (MR-EIT) was first proposed in 1992. Since then various reconstruction algorithms have been suggested and applied. These algorithms use peripheral voltage measurements and internal current density measurements in different combinations. In this study the problem of MR-EIT is treated as a hyperbolic system of first-order partial differential equations, and three numerical methods are proposed for its solution. This approach is not utilized in any of the algorithms proposed earlier. The numerical solution methods are integration along equipotential surfaces (method of characteristics), integration on a Cartesian grid, and inversion of a system matrix derived by a finite difference formulation. It is shown that if some uniqueness conditions are satisfied, then using at least two injected current patterns, resistivity can be reconstructed apart from a multiplicative constant. This constant can then be identified using a single voltage measurement. The methods proposed are direct, non-iterative, and valid and feasible for 3D reconstructions. They can also be used to easily obtain slice and field-of-view images from a 3D object. 2D simulations are made to illustrate the performance of the algorithms.Show more