An observational study investigating the CRY1Δ11 variant associated with delayed sleep–wake patterns and circadian metabolic output
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We conducted an observational research study to collect information on sleep–wake patterns from participants with a confirmed status of the cryptochrome circadian clock 1 (CRY1) splicing variant, CRY1Δ11 c.1657 + 3A > C, and their controls, defined as wild-type (WT) family members. Altogether, 67 participants were enrolled and completed this study in Turkey, recruited from a list of families with at least one CRY1-confirmed member. We measured sleep–wake patterns and metabolic output, specifically time and frequency of bowel movements, for all participants by daily post-sleep diaries over 28 days. The sleep diary measured self-reported bed time, wake time, midpoint of sleep, and latency to persistent sleep (LPS), and accounted for naps and awakenings for religious purposes. Wake time and midpoint of sleep were significantly later in the CRY1Δ11 variant group versus WT, and LPS was significantly greater in participants in the CRY1Δ11 variant group. The mean bed time on all nights of sleep was later in participants with a CRY1Δ11 variant versus WT. Additionally, participants with a CRY1Δ11 variant had significantly affected metabolic outputs, measured by later bowel movements than WT participants. These results demonstrate that, on average, individuals with the studied splicing variant experience pronounced delays in sleep period and circadian-related metabolic processes.