Block-based coding in K-12 education: a systematic literature review
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This study aims to determine the methodological tendencies and outputs of the studies conducted on the use of block-based coding tools in K-12 education by systematic literature review. According to their demographic characteristics, a total of 59 full-text research articles were analyzed through thematic content analysis. In addition, learning domains were explored in the research articles, and results were revealed by themes regarding the impact of block-based coding in K-12 education on learning domains. Research findings display that most of the research articles were published in 2019, commonly using the mixed-method research, and they were carried out with middle school level students with less than 50 sample sizes. This review also found that most research studies were conducted in the United States and in the Computer Science subject area. Finally, the most frequently used block-based coding tool was Scratch and problem-based learning approach was the most used considering the teaching/learning approaches. Besides, the cognitive domain was explored mainly in the research articles. The results of the research articles indicated that block-based coding tools improve the following skills regarding cognitive abilities: computational thinking, problem-solving, algorithmic and reflective thinking, critical thinking, and creative thinking skills. Moreover, results for interdisciplinary learning and gender differences regarding the cognitive domain were also found. Additionally, block-based coding positively affected students' feelings regarding the affective domain. Lastly, whereas students had positive attitudes towards coding, negative attitudes were also reported.