A 3D game theoretical framework for the evaluation of unmanned aircraft systems airspace integration concepts
Embargo Lift Date: 2023-10-23
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
103417-1 - 103417-22
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Predicting the outcomes of integrating Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS) is a complex problem, which is required to be addressed by simulation studies before allowing the routine access of UAS into the NAS. This paper focuses on providing a 3-dimensional (3D) simulation framework using a game-theoretical methodology to evaluate integration concepts using scenarios where manned and unmanned air vehicles co-exist. In the proposed method, the human pilot interactive decision-making process is incorporated into airspace models which can fill the gap in the literature where the pilot behavior is generally assumed to be known a priori. The proposed human pilot behavior is modeled using a dynamic level-k reasoning concept and approximate reinforcement learning. The level-k reasoning concept is a notion in game theory and is based on the assumption that humans have various levels of decision making. In the conventional “static” approach, each agent makes assumptions about his or her opponents and chooses his or her actions accordingly. On the other hand, in the dynamic level-k reasoning, agents can update their beliefs about their opponents and revise their level-k rule. In this study, Neural Fitted Q Iteration, which is an approximate reinforcement learning method, is used to model time-extended decisions of pilots with 3D maneuvers. An analysis of UAS integration is conducted using an Example 3D scenario in the presence of manned aircraft and fully autonomous UAS equipped with sense and avoid algorithms.