English learners’ motivation in higher education programs: instructional and personal correlates
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This study investigated the motivational factors linked with English language learning motivation in higher education. A systematic review (Study 1) aimed to clarify the complexity of conceptualization and operationalization of motivational concepts in L2 learning in the literature of the English for Academic Purposes (EAP) program and English Preparatory Program (EPP) contexts, and their relation to educational correlates. A prospective study (Study 2) investigated the relation of students’ motivational experience at the beginning (T1) of an eight-week course in EPPs to their academic buoyancy at the end of the course (T2) and achievement in the final exam (T3). In-depth systematic review (Study 1) of 30 articles showed that only 16 articles defined motivation clearly and consistently with a motivational theory, that there was consistency between definitions and measures of motivation in only 17 articles and that there were weaknesses in the methodology of the reviewed studies. Study 2, with 267 students revealed through SEM that students’ T1 need frustration predicted negatively T1 autonomous and positively T1 controlled motivation, which, in turn, predicted positively and negatively, respectively, T2 academic buoyancy. T1 need satisfaction related positively to T2 academic buoyancy. Finally, T2 academic buoyancy mediated the relation between students’ need satisfaction and final achievement while controlled motivation was also negatively related to final achievement. The results of both studies were discussed in terms of improvements of instruction and curriculum changes in EAP programs and EPPs.
English preparatory programs
English for Academic Purposes