Study efforts, learning strategies and test anxiety when striving for language competence: the role of utility value, self-efficacy, and reasons for learning English
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This study investigates the combined role of utility value, expectancy for success, intrinsic reasons and self-worth concerns, in predicting learning strategies and test anxiety. The study examined this potential prediction with 1,009 university students. The students were studying in a language preparatory program of a university. In the qualitative phase of this exploratory sequential mixed methods case study, semistructured interviews faciliated understanding of students’ perception of the motivational variables they believe are influential in their language learning process. Interviews were held with students from three different categories: non-repeaters (i.e., those who never failed), past-repeaters (i.e., those who had experienced failure), and current-repeaters (i.e., those who failed and were repeating the current period of study). Quantitative data were gathered through a survey approach and enabled exploration of the relationship among motivational components and learning strategies. Five hierarchical regression analyses was conducted. The regression analysis was conducted for effort regulation, learning strategies (i.e., rehearsal, critical thinking and metacognitive self-regulation) and test anxiety. The results of the regression analyses showed that, intrinsic reasons positively predicted learning strategies across the three groups of students. Self-worth concerns were found to positively predict test anxiety. The results of the study suggest that intrinsic reasons for have an important role in contexts where there is psychological pressure to be successful.