Enhanced interactions of amino acids and nucleic acid bases with bare black phosphorene monolayer mediated by coadsorbed species
Journal of Physical Chemistry C
American Chemical Society
23691 - 23704
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In this paper, we characterize amino acids and nucleic acid bases (nucleobases), such as glutamine, histidine, tyrosine, adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine, and examine their interaction with bare, as well as with gold cluster and Ti adatom covered, black phosphorene (α-P) monolayers using density functional theory. The binding of these amino acids and nucleobases to the bare α-P monolayer is realized generally through weak van der Waals interaction and comprises only a small amount of charge exchange. Accordingly, the electronic energy structures of adsorbates and underlying substrate are not affected significantly. However, the electronic structure of bare α-P is significantly affected upon adsorption of a gold cluster and a single Ti adatom; depending on the size of the adsorbate and the symmetry of their coverage, the energy band gap can be tuned and permanent magnetic moments can be attained. Additionally, the adsorption of amino acids or nucleobases to these adsorbates on an α-P monolayer results in enhanced binding and hence makes their sustainable fixation on α-P monolayer possible. In particular, a semiconducting Au decorated α-P monolayer undergoes a metal–insulator transition upon the adsorption of tyrosine. This and similar effects favor the α-P monolayer in biosensor applications. In contrast to the situation with adsorbates, the binding of amino acid is not enhanced when it adsorb to patterned vacancy or divacancy sites of the α-P monolayer. Our study shows that the absorbance of the bare α-P monolayer can be enhanced by coating with amino acid and nucleobases. The absorbance spectrum can be further modified by the adsorption of these molecules to gold atoms on the α-P monolayer.