Two-dimensional pnictogens: a review of recent progresses and future research directions
Özçelik, V. O.
Applied Physics Reviews
American Institute of Physics
021308-1 - 021308-28
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Soon after the synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) ultrathin black phosphorus and fabrication of field effect transistors thereof, theoretical studies have predicted that other group-VA elements (or pnictogens), N, As, Sb, and Bi can also form stable, single-layer (SL) structures. These were nitrogene in a buckled honeycomb structure, arsenene, antimonene, and bismuthene in a buckled honeycomb, as well as washboard and square-octagon structures with unusual mechanical, electronic, and optical properties. Subsequently, theoretical studies are followed by experimental efforts that aim at synthesizing these novel 2D materials. Currently, research on 2D pnictogens has been a rapidly growing field revealing exciting properties, which offers diverse applications in flexible electronics, spintronics, thermoelectrics, and sensors. This review presents an evaluation of the previous experimental and theoretical studies until 2019, in order to provide input for further research attempts in this field. To this end, we first reviewed 2D, SL structures of group-VA elements predicted by theoretical studies with an emphasis placed on their dynamical and thermal stabilities, which are crucial for their use in a device. The mechanical, electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of the stable structures and their nanoribbons are analyzed by examining the effect of external factors, such as strain, electric field, and substrates. The effect of vacancy defects and functionalization by chemical doping through adatom adsorption on the fundamental properties of pnictogens has been a critical subject. Interlayer interactions in bilayer and multilayer structures, their stability, and tuning their physical properties by vertical stacking geometries are also discussed. Finally, our review is concluded by highlighting new research directions and future perspectives on the challenges in this emerging field.
Thermodynamic states and processes