An analysis study on the implementations of gedik, esham and muzara’a
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This thesis examines there economic practices (gedik, esham and muzara’a) that emerged in the Ottoman Empire in the modern period (18th and 19th centuries) and the relationship between them. This study claims that these practices, which emerged or finalized during the same periods, were shaped in line with the needs of the Ottoman Empire and strengthened monetarization and commercialization at the borders of the empire, but they did not lead to a transformation in terms of capitalist classes and social power relations. In order to reinforce these arguments, the kethuda record of the barbers of Galata referring to a decree as well as the Istanbul and Konya court registers were used as primary sources. Secondary sources were used to understand the change and transformation of these practices and the period. Although these practices emerged in line with the needs of the age, it was concluded that they were far from responding to these needs at certain points and left their places to modern applications imported from Europe.