Turkey after Helsinki: economic challenges
Taylor & Francis
254 - 270
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Trade policy and economic integration in the Middle East and North Africa: economic boundaries in flux
After pursuing inward-oriented development strategies for 50 years, Turkey switched to outward-oriented policies in 1980. The policy of ‘opening up’ was pursued with the aim of integration into the European Union (EU). At the current time, all industrial goods circulate freely between Turkey and the EU; that is, no quotas and tariffs are imposed on imports of industrial goods. Turkey is also currently implementing the EU’s Common Customs Tariffs on imports of industrial goods from third countries and has adopted most of the preferential trade agreements the EU has concluded over time. On the commercial policy side, the country is implementing measures similar to those of the EU’s commercial policy-it has adopted EU competition law, established a Competition Board, adopted EU rules on protection of intellectual and industrial property rights, established a Patent Office, and adopted most of the EU’s product standards.