Bioactive nanomaterials for neural engineering
Neural Engineering: From Advanced Biomaterials to 3D Fabrication Techniques
Springer International Publishing
181 - 206
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Please cite this item using this persistent URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/11693/38365
Nervous system is a highly complex interconnected network and higher organisms including humans have limited neural regeneration capacity. Neurodegenerative diseases result in significant cognitive, sensory, or motor impairments. Following an injury in the neural network, there is a balance between promotion and inhibition of regeneration and this balance is shifted to different directions in central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). More regeneration capacity is observed in the PNS compared to the CNS. Although, several mechanisms play roles in the inhibitory and growth-promoting natures of the CNS and PNS, extracellular matrix (ECM) elements are key players in this process. ECM is a three-dimensional environment where the cells migrate, proliferate, and differentiate (Rutka et al. 1988; Pan et al. 1997). After a comprehensive investigation of the interactions between the ECM proteins and cell receptors, the ECM environment was found to regulate significant cellular processes such as survival, proliferation, differentiation, and migration (Yurchenco and Cheng 1994; Aszodi et al. 2006). Its components have major roles not only in neurogenesis during development of the nervous system but also in normal neural functioning during adulthood (Hubert et al. 2009). © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.