Synthesis of mesoporous lithium titanate thin films and monoliths as an anode material for high-rate lithium-ion batteries
Balcı, F. M.
Kudu, Ö. U.
Chemistry: A European Journal
18873 - 18880
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Mesoporous Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) thin film is an important anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Mesoporous films could be prepared by self-assembly processes. A molten-salt-assisted self-assembly (MASA) process is used to prepare mesoporous thin films of LTOs. Clear solutions of CTAB, P123, LiNO3, HNO3, and Ti(OC4H9)4 in ethanol form gel-like meso-ordered films upon either spin or spray coating. In the assembly process, the CTAB/P123 molar ratio of 14 is required to accommodate enough salt species in the mesophase, in which the LiI/P123 ratio can be varied between molar ratios of 28 and 72. Calcination of the meso-ordered films produces transparent mesoporous spinel LTO films that are abbreviated as Cxx-yyy-zzz or CAxx-yyy-zzz (C=calcined, CA=calcined–annealed, xx=LiI/P123 molar ratio, and yyy=calcination and zzz=annealing temperatures in Celsius) herein. All samples were characterized by using XRD, TEM, N2-sorption, and Raman techniques and it was found that, at all compositions, the LTO spinel phase formed with or without an anatase phase as an impurity. Electrochemical characterization of the films shows excellent performance at different current rates. The CA40-350-450 sample performs best among all samples tested, yielding an average discharge capacity of (176±1) mA h g−1 at C/2 and (139±4) mA h g−1 at 50 C and keeping 92 % of its initial discharge capacity upon 50 cycles at C/2.
Thin film lithium ion batteries
Anode material for lithium ion batteries
Initial discharge capacities
Mesoporous thin films
Self assembly process
Published Version (Please cite this version)http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.201604253
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