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dc.contributor.authorVignoles, V. L.en_US
dc.contributor.authorOwe, E.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBecker, M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorSmith, P. B.en_US
dc.contributor.authorEasterbrook, M. J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBrown, R.en_US
dc.contributor.authorGonzález, R.en_US
dc.contributor.authorDidier, N.en_US
dc.contributor.authorCarrasco, D.en_US
dc.contributor.authorCadena, M. P.en_US
dc.contributor.authorLay, S.en_US
dc.contributor.authorSchwartz, S. J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorRosiers, S. E. D.en_US
dc.contributor.authorVillamar, J. A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorGavreliuc, A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorZinkeng, M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorKreuzbauer, R.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBaguma, P.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMartin, M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorTatarko, A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorHerman, G.en_US
dc.contributor.authorde Sauvage, I.en_US
dc.contributor.authorCourtois, M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorGardarsdóttir, R. B.en_US
dc.contributor.authorHarb, C.en_US
dc.contributor.authorGallo, I. S.en_US
dc.contributor.authorGil, P. P.en_US
dc.contributor.authorClemares, R. L.en_US
dc.contributor.authorCampara, G.en_US
dc.contributor.authorNizharadze, G.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMacapagal, M. E. J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorJalal, B.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBourguignon, D.en_US
dc.contributor.authorZhang, J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorLv, S.en_US
dc.contributor.authorChybicka, A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorYuki, M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorZhang X.en_US
dc.contributor.authorEspinosa, A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorValk, A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorAbuhamdeh, S.en_US
dc.contributor.authorAmponsah, B.en_US
dc.contributor.authorÖzgen E.en_US
dc.contributor.authorGuner, E. Ü.en_US
dc.contributor.authorYamakoglu, N.en_US
dc.contributor.authorChobthamkit, P.en_US
dc.contributor.authorPyszczynski, T.en_US
dc.contributor.authorKesebir, P.en_US
dc.contributor.authorTrujillo, E. V.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBalanta, P.en_US
dc.contributor.authorAyala, B. C.en_US
dc.contributor.authorKoller, S. H.en_US
dc.contributor.authorJaafar, J. L.en_US
dc.contributor.authorGausel, N.en_US
dc.contributor.authorFischer, R.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMilfont, T. L.en_US
dc.contributor.authorKusdil, E.en_US
dc.contributor.authorÇağlar, S.en_US
dc.contributor.authorAldhafri, S.en_US
dc.contributor.authorFerreira, M. C.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMekonnen, K. H.en_US
dc.contributor.authorWang, Q.en_US
dc.contributor.authorFülöp, M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorTorres, A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorCamino, L.en_US
dc.contributor.authorLemos, F. C. S.en_US
dc.contributor.authorFritsche, I.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMöller, B.en_US
dc.contributor.authorRegalia, C.en_US
dc.contributor.authorManzi, C.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBrambilla, M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBond, M. H.en_US
dc.date.accessioned2018-04-12T10:50:19Z
dc.date.available2018-04-12T10:50:19Z
dc.date.issued2016en_US
dc.identifier.issn0096-3445
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11693/36711
dc.description.abstractMarkus and Kitayama's (1991) theory of independent and interdependent self-construals had a major influence on social, personality, and developmental psychology by highlighting the role of culture in psychological processes. However, research has relied excessively on contrasts between North American and East Asian samples, and commonly used self-report measures of independence and interdependence frequently fail to show predicted cultural differences. We revisited the conceptualization and measurement of independent and interdependent self-construals in 2 large-scale multinational surveys, using improved methods for cross-cultural research. We developed (Study 1: N = 2924 students in 16 nations) and validated across cultures (Study 2: N = 7279 adults from 55 cultural groups in 33 nations) a new 7-dimensional model of self-reported ways of being independent or interdependent. Patterns of global variation support some of Markus and Kitayama's predictions, but a simple contrast between independence and interdependence does not adequately capture the diverse models of selfhood that prevail in different world regions. Cultural groups emphasize different ways of being both independent and interdependent, depending on individualism-collectivism, national socioeconomic development, and religious heritage. Our 7-dimensional model will allow future researchers to test more accurately the implications of cultural models of selfhood for psychological processes in diverse ecocultural contexts. © 2016 American Psychological Association.en_US
dc.language.isoEnglishen_US
dc.source.titleJournal of Experimental Psychology: Generalen_US
dc.relation.isversionofhttps://doi.org/10.1037/xge0000175en_US
dc.subjectCultureen_US
dc.subjectIndependence-interdependenceen_US
dc.subjectSelf-construalsen_US
dc.subjectadolescenten_US
dc.subjectcultural anthropologyen_US
dc.subjectcultural factoren_US
dc.subjectfemaleen_US
dc.subjecthumanen_US
dc.subjectindividualityen_US
dc.subjectmaleen_US
dc.subjectpersonalityen_US
dc.subjectpsychologyen_US
dc.subjectself concepten_US
dc.subjectstudenten_US
dc.subjectyoung adulten_US
dc.subjectAdolescenten_US
dc.subjectCross-Cultural Comparisonen_US
dc.subjectCultureen_US
dc.subjectFemaleen_US
dc.subjectHumansen_US
dc.subjectIndividualityen_US
dc.subjectMaleen_US
dc.subjectPersonalityen_US
dc.subjectSelf Concepten_US
dc.subjectStudentsen_US
dc.subjectYoung Adulten_US
dc.titleBeyond the 'East-West' dichotomy: Global variation in cultural models of selfhooden_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.departmentDepartment of Psychologyen_US
dc.citation.spage966en_US
dc.citation.epage1000en_US
dc.citation.volumeNumber145en_US
dc.citation.issueNumber8en_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1037/xge0000175en_US
dc.publisherAmerican Psychological Association Inc.en_US


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