In vivo applications of liposomal vaccines encapsulating single or dual pathogenassociated molecular patterns
Embargo Lift Date: 2020-03-23
Bayyurt Kocabaş, Banu
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Nucleic acid-based pattern recognition receptor (PRR) agonists are promising adjuvants and immunotherapeutic agents. Combination of PRR ligands potentiates immune response by providing synergistic immune activity via triggering different signaling pathways and may impact antigen dependent T-cell immune memory. However, the duration of short circulation due to nuclease attacks is hampering their clinical performance. Liposomes enable protein and nucleic acid based compounds to have high encapsulation efficiency. Herein, we aimed to develop liposomal carrier systems that co-encapsulating single TLR9 or combinations with TLR3 or STING ligands and assess their potential as adjuvants and immunostimulatory agents in in vivo applications. Liposomal dual nucleic acid formulations induced synergistic innate immune activation, enhanced cytokine production along with internalization capacity of ligands. In anti-cancer vaccine study, CpG ODN and poly(I:C) coencapsulation significantly increased OVA-specific Th1-biased immune even after eight months post-booster injection. Challenge with OVA-expressing tumor cell line, E.G7, demonstrated that mice immunized with liposomes co-encapsulating CpG ODN and poly(I:C) had significantly slower tumor progression dependent on OVAspecific cytotoxic memory T-cells. In our second in vivo application, liposomal CDN and TLR9 therapy led to 80% remission of established melanoma tumor. Increased IgG2c/IgG1 ratio in mice treated with liposomal formulations indicating the development of antigen specific Th1-biased immunity was observed. Furthermore, along with the treatment, IFN-dual ligands into liposomes enhanced the anti-tumor activity of single ligands. In the third part, immunization with CpG ODN loaded liposomal formulations together with antigens increased antigen-specific humoral response against FMDV and Helicobacter. In addition, the liposomal CpG ODN reduced bacterial gastric colonization by antigen-dependent Th1 and Th17 immune responses after helicobacter challenging.