The Teutonic Order in Cyprus ca.1197-1250
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This thesis focuses on the early development of the Teutonic Order in Cyprus during the period between c.1197, when the Order first appeared in Cyprus, and death of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II in 1250. Contrary to the prevalent judgement, this study demonstrates the Teutonic Order was not subordinate to the emperor and developed in a similar way to the Templars and the Hospitallers. This study investigates the factors behind the development and focuses on a particularly important factor: the political situation of the island. Besides, after describing the Teutonic Order’s early development in Cyprus, it discusses the reasons that prevented further development on the island which has been simply explained by historians via the Teutonic Order’s relations with Frederick II, especially during the conflict in Cyprus between 1229 and 1233. However, this study concludes that the Teutonic Order neither supported the emperor nor contributed to any conflict in Cyprus. Instead, thanks to its legendary Grandmaster Hermann von Salza, it remained neutral and managed to keep a certain level of development in the Holy Land whilst no longer keeping its early level of development in Cyprus. At this point, this study focuses on the influential family of Ibelin in Cyprus and concludes that the Ibelins prevented the Teutonic Order’s further development on the island.