Student need satisfaction and learning strategies: the relation to mastery goals and underlying reasons
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This study investigated if students’ need satisfaction and frustration are related to their learning strategies through mastery-approach goals (MAp; the goal to learn as much as possible) and mastery-avoidance goals (MAv; the goal to avoid learning less than it is possible). Furthermore, the study investigated if the autonomous and controlling reasons underlying these goals are related to their needs satisfaction or frustration. To address the questions for this research, two studies were conducted through two different research designs: a correlational cross-sectional study followed by a correlational short-term longitudinal investigation. The correlational cross-sectional was conducted with 226 students who participated voluntarily. They were from different departments of a foundation university in Ankara, Turkey. The correlational short-term longitudinal study was conducted with 331 students from the English Language Preparatory Program of the same university. In both studies, same survey was administered to assess the mediating role of autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of MAp and MAv goals between students’ perceived need satisfaction and learning strategies. The results of the path analysis showed that students’ perceived need satisfaction was positively related to MAp and MAv goals, particularly to the autonomous reasons underlying these goals. Also, when students adopt MAp or MAv goal for controlling reasons, students’ need frustration is high. Additionally, MAp goals and autonomous reasons underlying MAp goals are stronger positive predictors of students’ learning strategies than the MAv goals and their underlying autonomous reasons. Finally, suggestions for further research and implications of the results for education and teaching practices are discussed.
Autonomous and controlled motivation and learning strategies