Ugaritic seal metamorphoses as a reflection of the Hittite administration and the Egyptian influence in the Late Bronze Age in Western Syria
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This study explores the ways in which Hittite political control of Northern Syria in the LBA influenced and modified Ugaritic glyptic and methods of sealing documents. It analyzes the ring, stamp and cylinder seal impressions and seals found at Ugarit and compares them with parallels or similar finds from Hattusa, Emar and other sites within the Hittite realm. It argues that the differences in seal types and sealing practices resulted in the development of a new shape of ring seal. This new type served Hittite officials involved in administration of Syrian domains as well as the vassal kings and their personnel who concurrently used seals of different types as appropriate to their bureaucratic needs. In some cases, nonetheless, the utilization of various seal types by a single individual reflects subsequent periods in this person’s life and career. The thesis discusses also changes in iconography stimulated by Ugarit’s submission to the Hittite king. It focuses on identification and explanation of the presence of Anatolian and Egyptian elements in the Ugaritic and Hittite seal designs in relation to the vassal state administration and international political situation.