History of archaeological and cultural heritage management in Turkey and Europe : a look from the past to the present
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This paper explores the historical evolution of archaeological heritage management in Turkey and in Europe. Its overall aim is to draw attention to the growing significance of archaeological heritage management, and to discuss the modern approaches related to this field. Within the European context, the history of archaeological protection goes back to the seventeenth century. In the nineteenth century, the preservation of archaeological heritage became a firmly established concept all over Europe when most of the European countries established legislations and relevant institutions associated with archaeology. After World War II, archaeology became a tool to rehabilitate the European historical past in advance of redevelopment in the war-torn cities of Europe. Today, archaeological heritage management in Europe is regarded as the collective responsibility of all nations and all disciplines. Turkey has a long experience in archaeology like most of the European countries and it possesses substantial archaeological resources, but the archaeological heritage in the country is not adequately preserved and managed due to administrative, bureaucratic, educational, legislative and economic problems. These problems, which also exist in most of the European countries such as Greece and Italy, are needed to be overcome by Turkey preparing to become a member of the European Union.