Teacher motivating style, students‟ quality of motivation and students‟ striving in math
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Using a cross-sectional design, this study investigated through a survey the relationship of Turkish high school math teachers‟ perceived motivating style with students‟ type of achievement goals and the reasons for endorsing them. The study also investigated the relation of students‟ type of achievement goals and their underlying reasons with their grade, learning strategies, experience of challenge, and self-handicapping in math. The study included 180 students (Mage = 16.01, SD = 1.44, 56.7% females) from grades “preparatory level” to 12th, from an international foundation school in eastern part of Turkey. The questionnaires measured Math teachers‟ perceived autonomy support, structure, and involvement as well as perceived classroom goal structures. Students‟ achievement goal type (mastery-approach, performance-approach or outcome goal) and the underlying reasons for pursuing the goal (autonomous or volitional versus controlling or pressuring reasons) were also measured. Lastly, academic self-handicapping, use of effective learning strategies, experience of challenge in Math were measure with the questionnaires and data about students‟ average grades in Math was collected. Results showed that mastery-approach goal was chosen most frequently as the most dominant goal of the participants in math. Students who were focused on their performance, however, chose to get high grades (i.e., endorsed an outcome goal) instead of outperforming other students (i.e., endorsing a performance-approach goal). Performance-approach goal was not a dominant goal for the majority of the participated Turkish students. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that autonomous reasons underlying either a mastery-approach goal or an outcome goal related positively to use of effective learning strategies and experience of challenge in math. In contrast, controlling reasons underlying mastery-approach or outcome goal were negatively related to experience of challenge in math. The autonomous reasons underlying mastery-approach goals were also positively related with perceived teacher‟s involvement whereas the controlling reasons underlying mastery-approach goals were positively related with perceived performance-approach goal structures. The results were discussed in terms of their implication to educational practices.
KeywordsAutonomous and controlled motivation
Achievement goal structures
Experience of challenge