Forces and torques on the nanoscale: from measurement to applications
Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 8458, Optical Trapping and Optical Micromanipulation IX
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The possibility of measuring microscopic forces down to the femtonewton range has opened new possibilities in fields such as biophysics and nanophotonics. I will review some of the techniques most often employed, namely the photonic force microscope (PFM) and the total internal reflection microscope (TIRM), which are able to measure tiny forces acting on optically trapped particles. I will then discuss several applications of such nanoscopic forces: from plasmonic optical manipulation, to self-propelled microswimmers, to self-organization in large ensembles of particles.
Photonic force microscope
Total internal reflection microscopy