A re-conceptualization of transformational leadership in the Turkish context
Please cite this item using this persistent URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/11693/26717
Turk Psikoloji Dergisi
- Research Paper 
The present study adopting a cultural approach, investigated how transformational leadership is defined in the Turkish context, what its dimensions are and to what extent these cultural features differ from the universal dimensions in the literature. The first study examined how transformational leadership is defined and understood through interviews with 31 knowledge workers. In the second study with data from 230 R&D employees, we tested the psychometric properties of the emic items. Factor analysis conducted with both etic and emic items revealed three factors: Considerate-Paternalistic Leadership, Inspiring Charismatic Leadership, Active-Stimulating Leadership. Among these factors, Paternalistic and Active Leadership represented the emic aspects, while Inspiring-Charismatic Leadership included both emic and etic items. In the third hypotheses-testing study, data was collected from 256 R&D employees and their leaders. The results showed that 3 factors predicted important outcomes of transformational leadership and emic aspects of these dimensions predicted those outcomes above and beyond universal dimensions. Findings are discussed with reference to the recent economic and social change in Turkey in addition to theoretical suggestions regarding the emic aspects.
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