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dc.contributor.authorFreedman, A. H.en_US
dc.contributor.authorGronau I.en_US
dc.contributor.authorSchweizer, R. M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorOrtega-Del Vecchyo, D.en_US
dc.contributor.authorHan, E.en_US
dc.contributor.authorSilva, P. M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorGalaverni, M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorFan, Z.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMarx P.en_US
dc.contributor.authorLorente-Galdos, B.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBeale, H.en_US
dc.contributor.authorRamirez, O.en_US
dc.contributor.authorHormozdiari, F.en_US
dc.contributor.authorAlkan C.en_US
dc.contributor.authorVilà, C.en_US
dc.contributor.authorSquire K.en_US
dc.contributor.authorGeffen, E.en_US
dc.contributor.authorKusak, J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBoyko, A. R.en_US
dc.contributor.authorParker, H. G.en_US
dc.contributor.authorLee C.en_US
dc.contributor.authorTadigotla, V.en_US
dc.contributor.authorSiepel, A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBustamante, C. D.en_US
dc.contributor.authorHarkins, T. T.en_US
dc.contributor.authorNelson, S. F.en_US
dc.contributor.authorOstrander, E. A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMarques Bonet, T.en_US
dc.contributor.authorWayne, R. K.en_US
dc.contributor.authorNovembre, J.en_US
dc.date.accessioned2016-02-08T11:03:13Z
dc.date.available2016-02-08T11:03:13Z
dc.date.issued2014en_US
dc.identifier.issn1553-7390
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11693/26673
dc.description.abstractTo identify genetic changes underlying dog domestication and reconstruct their early evolutionary history, we generated high-quality genome sequences from three gray wolves, one from each of the three putative centers of dog domestication, two basal dog lineages (Basenji and Dingo) and a golden jackal as an outgroup. Analysis of these sequences supports a demographic model in which dogs and wolves diverged through a dynamic process involving population bottlenecks in both lineages and post-divergence gene flow. In dogs, the domestication bottleneck involved at least a 16-fold reduction in population size, a much more severe bottleneck than estimated previously. A sharp bottleneck in wolves occurred soon after their divergence from dogs, implying that the pool of diversity from which dogs arose was substantially larger than represented by modern wolf populations. We narrow the plausible range for the date of initial dog domestication to an interval spanning 11-16 thousand years ago, predating the rise of agriculture. In light of this finding, we expand upon previous work regarding the increase in copy number of the amylase gene (AMY2B) in dogs, which is believed to have aided digestion of starch in agricultural refuse. We find standing variation for amylase copy number variation in wolves and little or no copy number increase in the Dingo and Husky lineages. In conjunction with the estimated timing of dog origins, these results provide additional support to archaeological finds, suggesting the earliest dogs arose alongside hunter-gathers rather than agriculturists. Regarding the geographic origin of dogs, we find that, surprisingly, none of the extant wolf lineages from putative domestication centers is more closely related to dogs, and, instead, the sampled wolves form a sister monophyletic clade. This result, in combination with dog-wolf admixture during the process of domestication, suggests that a re-evaluation of past hypotheses regarding dog origins is necessary. © 2014.en_US
dc.language.isoEnglishen_US
dc.source.titlePLoS Geneticsen_US
dc.relation.isversionofhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004016en_US
dc.subjectDomesticen_US
dc.subjectMitochondrialen_US
dc.subjectMolecularen_US
dc.subjectAmylasesen_US
dc.subjectAnimalsen_US
dc.subjectDNA copy number variationsen_US
dc.subjectDNAen_US
dc.subjectDogsen_US
dc.subjectEvolutionen_US
dc.subjectGenetic variationen_US
dc.subjectPhylogenyen_US
dc.subjectPopulation densityen_US
dc.subjectWolvesen_US
dc.titleGenome sequencing highlights the dynamic early history of dogsen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.departmentDepartment of Computer Engineeringen_US
dc.citation.spage12en_US
dc.citation.epage1en_US
dc.citation.volumeNumber10en_US
dc.citation.issueNumber1en_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pgen.1004016en_US
dc.publisherPublic Library of Scienceen_US


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