Distinct regulation of tonsillar immune response in virus infection
Akdis, C. A.
Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
658 - 667
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Background: The relationships between tonsillar immune responses, and viral infection and allergy are incompletely known. Objective To study intratonsillar/nasopharyngeal virus detections and in vivo expressions of T-cell- and innate immune response-specific cytokines, transcription factors, and type I/II/III interferons in human tonsils. Methods: Palatine tonsil samples were obtained from 143 elective tonsillectomy patients. Adenovirus, bocavirus-1, coronavirus, enteroviruses, influenza virus, metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus, rhinovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus were detected using PCR. The mRNA expression levels of IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, IL-28, IL-29, IL-37, TGF-β, FOXP3, GATA3, RORC2, and Tbet were directly analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Results Fifty percentage of subjects reported allergy, 59% had ≥1 nasopharyngeal viruses, and 24% had ≥1 intratonsillar viruses. Tonsillar virus detection showed a strong negative association with age; especially rhinovirus or parainfluenza virus detection showed positive association with IFN-γ and Tbet expressions. IL-37 expression was positively associated with atopic dermatitis, whereas IFN-α, IL-13, IL-28, and Tbet expressions were negatively associated with allergic diseases. Network analyses demonstrated strongly polarized clusters of immune regulatory (IL-10, IL-17, TGF-β, FOXP3, GATA3, RORC2, Tbet) and antiviral (IFN-α, IFN-β, IL-28, IL-29) genes. These two clusters became more distinctive in the presence of viral infection or allergy. A negative correlation between antiviral cytokines and IL-10, IL-17, IL-37, FOXP3, and RORC2 was observed only in the presence of viruses, and interestingly, IL-13 strongly correlated with antiviral cytokines. Conclusions: Tonsillar cytokine expression is closely related to existing viral infections, age, and allergic illnesses and shows distinct clusters between antiviral and immune regulatory genes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Polymerase chain reaction system
Respiratory syncytial pneumovirus
Gene expression profiling
Gene expression regulation
Gene regulatory network
Gene expression regulation
Gene regulatory networks
Published Version (Please cite this version)http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.12396
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