XPS analysis with external bias: a simple method for probing differential charging
Surface and Interface Analysis
John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
619 - 623
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The XPS spectra of thermally grown oxide layers on Si, Al, W and Hf substrates have been recorded while the samples were subjected to external d.c. voltage bias. The bias induces additional shifts in the measured binding energy differences between the XPS peaks of the oxide and that of the metal substrate in Si and Al (as probed both in the 2p and the KLL Auger regions), but not in W and Hf (as probed in the 4f region). These bias induced shifts are attributed to differential charging between the oxide layer and the substrate, which in turn is postulated to be related to the capacitance and inversely to the dielectric constant of the oxide layer. Accordingly, silicon dioxide with the smallest dielectric constant undergoes the largest differential charging, aluminium oxide is in the middle and no appreciable charging can be induced in the high-k tungsten and hafnium oxides, all of which are ∼6 nm thick. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.