Detection of underdeveloped hazelnuts from fully developed nuts by impact acoustics
Pearson, T. C.
Çetin, A. Enis
American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. Transactions
American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers
1971 - 1976
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Shell-to-kernel weight ratio is a vital measurement of quality in hazelnuts as it helps to identify nuts that have underdeveloped kernels. Nuts containing underdeveloped kernels may contain mycotoxin-producing molds, which are linked to cancer and are heavily regulated in international trade. A prototype system was set up to detect underdeveloped hazelnuts by dropping them onto a steel plate and recording the acoustic signal that was generated when a kernel hit the plate. A feature vector comprising line spectral frequencies and time-domain maxima that describes both the time and frequency nature of the impact sound was extracted from each sound signal and used to classify each nut by a support-vector machine. Experimental studies demonstrated accuracies as high as 97% in classifying hazelnuts with underdeveloped kernels.