Directional processing of ultrasonic arc maps and its comparison with existing techniques
International Journal of Robotics Research
Sage Publications Ltd.
797 - 820
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A new technique for processing ultrasonic arc maps is proposed and compared to six existing techniques for map-building purposes. These techniques are simple point marking along the line-of-sight, voting and thresholding, morphological processing, Bayesian update scheme for occupancy grids, arc-transversal median algorithm, and triangulation-based fusion. The directional maximum technique, newly proposed in this paper, employs directional processing to extract the map of the environment from ultrasonic arc maps. It aims at overcoming the intrinsic angular uncertainty of ultrasonic sensors in map building, as well as eliminating noise and cross-talk related misreadings. The compared techniques are implemented with a wall-following motion-planning scheme for ground coverage. The comparison is based on experimental data and three complementary error criteria: mean absolute error, correct detection rate for full and empty regions, and computational cost in terms of CPU time. The directional maximum technique offers a very good compromise between mean absolute error and correct detection rate, with a processing time less than one-tenth of a second. Compared to the existing techniques, the directional maximum method is also superior in range accuracy and in eliminating artifacts, resulting in the best overall performance. The results indicate several trade-offs in the choice of ultrasonic arc-map processing techniques.