Probing three-dimensional surface force fields with atomic resolution: measurement strategies, limitations, and artifact reduction
Baykara, M. Z.
Dagdeviren, O. E.
Schwendemann, T. C.
Altman, E. I.
Schwarz, U. D.
Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Beilstein - Institut zur Foerderung der Chemischen Wissenschaften
637 - 650
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Noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) is being increasingly used to measure the interaction force between an atomically sharp probe tip and surfaces of interest, as a function of the three spatial dimensions, with picometer and piconewton accuracy. Since the results of such measurements may be affected by piezo nonlinearities, thermal and electronic drift, tip asymmetries, and elastic deformation of the tip apex, these effects need to be considered during image interpretation. In this paper, we analyze their impact on the acquired data, compare different methods to record atomic-resolution surface force fields, and determine the approaches that suffer the least from the associated artifacts. The related discussion underscores the idea that since force fields recorded by using NC-AFM always reflect the properties of both the sample and the probe tip, efforts to reduce unwanted effects of the tip on recorded data are indispensable for the extraction of detailed information about the atomicscale properties of the surface. © 2012 Baykara et al.