Exosomes: Natural nanovesicle candidates used in the diagnosis and treatment [Eksozomlar: Tani ve tedavide kullanilabilen dogal nanokesecik adaylari]
Turkish Journal of Immunology
Turkish Society of Immunology
34 - 40
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Please cite this item using this persistent URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/11693/21173
Exosomes are nano-vesicles released by all known cells. Although they were called as residual cells acting as a cleaner of undesired molecules out of cell during the first discovery in 1980s, recent studies have revealed critical physiological tasks of these vesicles over the past 20 years. These vesicles which can be produced by all body fluids play an important role in many biological activities including intracellular communication, signal conduction, genetic material transfer, and regulation of immune response. Due to their several tasks, exosomes play a crucial role in the disease pathogenesis. Considering all these tasks, exosomes can be considered in both diagnosis and treatment. Exosomes originating from distinct cells have immunosuppressive and immunostimulatory features and, thereby, therapeutic attempts which regulate immune function in case of autoimmune and immunosuppression. In addition, thanks to being natural nano-carriers, exosomes may pave the way for the development of new-generation vaccines containing both adjuvant and antigen. Besides therapeutic applications, there are evidences indicating that exosomes can be used in the diagnosis of several cancer forms including prostate cancer, glioblastoma, squamous-cell lung carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma, as they play a role in the disease pathogenesis. © 2014 Turkish Journal of Immunology.