Çağlarını eleştiren divan şairleri: Hayreti-Usüli-Hayali
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Yesevî dervishes disseminated in Anatolia a heterodox branch of folk Islam whose origins can be traced back to Ahmet Yesevî. This branch was more readily accepted among the Turkomans living in frontier regions due to pre-Islamic belief patterns. Political authorities adopted the ortodox (Sunni) Islam with the help of urbanization and the establishment of medreses and during the time of the Anatolian Seljuk State and the Ottoman period, the heterodoks groups continued to involve in activities which were socially and politically inspired. The Kalenden order, which constituted one of the most important groups in Anatolian heterodoxy to develop out of the Melâmetî order, is based on a kind of asceticism, that is, to avoid oneself s from wordly pleasures and to discipline one’s soul through solitude. Such beliefs were also reflected in the works of poets who adapted heterodox Islam. This literature, which began with Mevlânâ Celâleddîn Rûmî and was refined with Yunus Emre, has generally been evaluated in the context of mystical and folk literature. In this study, three Divan poets who adopted heterodox Islam have been selected: Hayreti, Usûlî and Hayâli. These poets were affected by mystical characteristics within the same cultural environment and sympathized with the Kalenderi order. The poets from Vardar Yenicesi, under the influence of Molla İlâhî’s independent mysticism, were proud and submitted to no one. They were raised as poets to criticize both political and social life. These poets, influenced by the Kalenderîs wrote political critiques of the government for not treating the people justly and not recognizing their true worth. In social life, the original characteristics of these poets, who were more outspoken in their complaints concerning destiny and the world, drew attention to social inequalities in status and income. Moreover, these three poets provide humanity with keys to a better life through the suggestions. As a result, under the influence both of the early education that they received in Vardar Yenicesi and of the Kalenderi order, Hayreti, Usûlî and Hayâlî put much more emphasis on the political and social criticism than the other Divan poets and they exhibited a more wordly perspective, thereby showing a different aspect of Divan poetry.