The effects of short-term crowding on personal space: a case study on an automatic teller machine
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The aim of this study is to put forth the effects of shortterm crowding on personal space. The analysis is planned to be carried out by means of a research on Automatic Teller Machine (ATM) users in Ankara. Initially, the conceptions and definitions of personal space and crowding are defined. The influences of crowding on personal space are discussed under the headings of personal space intrusion, withdrawal behaviors, and privacy reduction. The activity, withdrawing money from an ATM requires certain privacy needs which may vary with personal characteristics of the individuals. Among these, sex differences are considered as an important factor. In order to search for the effects of high density on interpersonal distance, two levels of density, low and high, are considered. The survey is carried out through observation and short interviews with the users in both density conditions. Finally, the clues about mismatches between space characteristics and user expectations are obtained through this study. Based on the findings of this survey as well as the literature review, appropriate design solutions for an indoor ATM hall are developed.