The agricultural structure of the Foça region in the mid-nineteenth century : an examination of the çift-hane system and the big farms in the light of the temettü defters, 1844-45 (H 1260-61)
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This thesis hopes to examine the agricultural structure of the Foca region (near Izmir)in the mid nineteenth century in the light of the temettu defters, until now a largely unexploited source. The aim of this thesis in general is, first, to concentrate on the cifthane, which Professor Halil Inalcik has emphasized as the basic unit of the Ottoman rural economy. Second, this thesis will concentrate on the big farms, which have been argued by some historians as also dominating the rural economy, acting as a vehicle for commercialization and integration into the world economy. This thesis, in order to better achieve this aim has been divided into three chapters. The first chapter discusses the definition of the temettu defters, or "income registers" as a primary source and its historical and statistical value as a registration of land and income during the Tanzimat period (specifically 1844-45). The second chapter discusses the classical Ottoman land regime and focuses both on Inalcik's explanations of the cift-hane unit as well as describing and analyzing Inalcik's ideas about the big farms. In the final chapter, I have tried to use the data in the temettu defters for the Foca region to investigate the possible remains of the cift-hane units at the time as well as to examine the character of the big farms; in other words were the big farms western oriented or not? We have found in our study that there were possible traces of the cift-hane units, especially as a measurement of land and oxen. In addition, we also confirm Inalcik's idea that the big farms appear to have a conservative character, that is, they did not act as agents of liberal economic change.