Biophotonic applications of ultrafast fiber lasers: from biomaterial surface modification to sub-cellular nanosurgery
İlday, F. Ömer
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Just a year after the invention of the LASER in 1960, it was demonstrated that lasers could be used for the treatment of certain skin abnormalities. At present, lasers are extensively used in a broad range of medical treatments. After the development of femtosecond pulse lasers in the 1980s, even more exciting possibilities in a diverse range of fields have been realized. Accordingly, ultrashort pulse lasers are widely used in biological applications in recent years. In parallel to these, fiber laser systems have increasingly been utilized in a wide range of scientific and biomedical applications, since they are highly compatible systems for being employed for industrial and biomedical applications. Consequently, the aim of this Ph.D. thesis proposal is to develop compact, simpler to operate, and cost-efficient ultrafast fiber lasers with different repetition rates and pulse energies. By using such systems, we demonstrate the biophotonic applications of these lasers on two different biological research fields. As a part of this thesis study, we develop ultrafast fiber lasers and apply them in biomaterial surface modification. We demonstrate that different surfaces with micro- and nano-scale topographies can be generated at high speed, precision and repeatability. The outcomes of biomaterial surface modification with different laser parameters are compared in terms of topographical uniformity and repeatability. Additionally, a variety of topographical modifications are assessed with respect to the efficiency on cell attachment and proliferation on metal implants.As the second part of this thesis, we develop a custom-built ultrafast fiber laser-integrated microscope system for nanosurgery and tissue ablation experiments. Subsequently, we employ this system in order to make high-precision cuts onto different biological specimens ranging from the tissue level to subcellular level, such as a part of an axon or a single organelle. Finally, we improve this integrated system in a way that it becomes capable of generating optical pulses in any desired sequence possible. This is achieved by using acousto-optic modulators (AOM) and custom-developed field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA).
Ultrashort Pulse Laser