The Soviet attitude towards Turkey 1923-1929
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This doctoral dissertation deals with the official Soviet attitude towards Turkey during the years between 1923-1929. It is the aim of this dissertation to elicit the objectives of the Turkish and Soviet foreign policy towards each other during the period in question, and to ascertain what factors played a role in the determination of those policy objectives. During the period between 1923 - 1929, the contiguity of the Turkish territory to the USSR, as well as internal and external weakness of the Soviets, were factors that determined the Soviet policy objectives towards Turkey. The Soviet government desired Turkey to be the State with a friendly manner towards the USSR. Besides, it wished that Turkey would not take part in aggressions against the USSR, and not allow other powers to use the Turkish territory as a springboard for an attack on the USSR. The Soviet government supposed that a friendly Turkey would be a factor of security for the USSR. The USSR was also of great importance for Turkey. The Turkish government aimed at preserving the Turkish national state within certain national boundaries and intended to consolidate its military victory by economic reconstruction of the country. The Turkish government was in need of time in order to recover the economy of the 6 country and to consolidate the regime. Proceeding from this, it was its foreign policy priority to prevent any aggression against Turkey. As it shared a long sea and land frontier with the USSR, the Turkish government also desired the USSR to be the State with friendly attitude towards Turkey. It believed that the USSR with a friendly attitude towards Turkey would be a favourable factor for the security of its north-eastern and eastern parts of the frontier with the USSR. As a result of the Neutrality, Non-Aggression and Non-Participation Treaty of December 17, 1925 and the Ankara Protocol of December 17, 1929, the USSR and Turkey achieved their policy objectives. They also needed the benevolence of each other direly. They knew that only by behaving so, they could achieve their policy objectives. In this sense, the relations between Turkey and the USSR in the period between 1923-1929 were mutually beneficial relations.