Conflicts between the Dutch merchants and the Ottoman Local Authorities according to the "Felemenk 'Ahdname Defteri" dated 1091/1680
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The Dutch republic, in the seventeenth century, was a global naval power with her special substantially big ships, as well as her commercial and financial basis. While the Dutch State, i.e. the United Provinces, was breaking its chains from Spanish domination in the late sixteenth century in one hand, she was establishing diplomatic connections with the Ottoman State on the other. Despite the early capitulations of 1612 and the appointment of Cornelis HAGA, as an ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary, the Dutch diplomatic mission at the Porte was carried out by the charge d'affaires between 1638 and 1680. Full diplomatic relations were re-established with the renewal of Dutch capitulations in 1680. The thesis covers the period from the early contacts through the diplomatic relations of the eighteenth century. The full transcription of the 'ahdname of 1091/1680, and the facsimile of the 1021/1612 'ahdname are also included in this study. The nature of the capitulations, legal priority of the 'ahdnames, the privileges of the muste'min communities, the consuls, the dragomans, the cottimo, the principle of extraterritoriality, the privileges of individuals, the aman by sea, the freedom of transport, the customs zones, the customs duties and the commercial conflicts are evaluated in the thesis through citations taken from selected documents from the Felemenk 'Ahdname Defteri, dated 1091/1680. The full transcription and facsimile of each selected document are given in appendix 4.