Halit Ziya Uşaklıgil'in romanlarında aşk ve nesne ilişkileri
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Love and Object Relations in the Novels of Halit Ziya Uşaklıgil Love has been one of the most common themes in world literature at all times. The long-lasting effect of love on an individual’s life stems from its deep-rooted significance for the psyche. In this M.A. thesis the themes of love and self-sacrifice in the novels of Halit Ziya Uşaklıgil (1865-1945) are examined in depth through the methods of psychoanalytic criticism. Many Turkish critics consider Halit Ziya Uşaklıgil to be the first Turkish novelist on account of the maturity and psychological depth of his writings when this genre was newly developing. Uşaklıgil, who wrote in almost every genre of literature, usually deals with unrequited or unhappy love affairs, which often end in tragic loss, suicide or other forms of disaster. The author’s propensity for the tragic turns his novels into rich embodiments of textual material for psychoanalytically-based literary investigations. In this study, the concept of libido first developed by Sigmund Freud, and various analytical concepts in the realm of object relations theory first developed by Melanie Klein will be employed as key terms of analysis. Although the views of these theorists differ in certain respects, their approach to the individual’s psychosexual development and the problems faced in the process of love may be considered complementary. In view of these and other theorists’ analysis of love, we conclude that love is a process of transformation in which “the other” becomes part of the ego together with all of its psychological consequences. In the ego’s search for bliss, the sense of security that the prospect of the unification of the ego with the other presents, turns the beloved into the ultimate object. However, the ego structures of the lovers determine whether the outcome of the relationship will be happy or not. Hence, when the beloved becomes the sole reason for one’s existence—as in the novels of Halit Ziya Uşaklıgil— relinquishing all other object representations and threatening the independence of ego structures, love turns unavoidably into tragedy. In this thesis, Aşk-ı Memnu (Forbidden Love, 1900) and Mai ve Siyah (Blue and Black, 1897), two masterpieces of Uşaklıgil as well as of Turkish literature, are studied in depth in terms of love and object relations. Both novels present various characters who are dragged into tragedy because of the very constitution of their psyche. The study also investigates the patterns of love in the earlier novels of the author in order to compare these novels with the said masterpieces and verify the findings.