A1GaN UV photodetectors : from micro to nano
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The absorption edge of AlGaN based alloys can be tuned from deep UV to near UV by changing the composition. This enables the use of the material in various technological applications such as military, environmental monitoring and biological imaging. In this thesis, we proposed and demonstrated various UV photodetectors for different purposes. The multi-band photodetectors have the unique ability to sense the UV spectrum in different portions at the same time. We demonstrated monolithically integrated dual and four-band photodetectors with multi layer structures grown on sapphire. This was achieved through epitaxial growth of multi AlGaN layers with decreasing Al content. We suggested two different device architectures. First one has separate filter and active layers, whereas the second one has all active layers which are used as filter layers as well. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) values for the dual band photodetector was 11 and 22 nm with more than three orders of magnitude inter-band rejection ratio. The self-filtering four band photodetector has FWHMs of 18, 17, 22 and 9 nm from longer to shorter bands. Whereas photodetector with separate filter layers has FWHMs of 8, 12, 11 and 8 nm, from longer to shorter bands. The overall inter-band rejection ration was increased from about one to two of magnitude after incorporating the passive filter layers. The plasmonic enhancement of photonic devices has attracted much attention for the past decade. However, there is not much research that has been conducted in UV region. In the second part of this thesis, we fabricated nanostructures on GaN based photodetectors and improved the responsivity of the device. We have fabricated Al nano-particles on sapphire with e-beam lithography. We characterized their response via spectral extinction measurements. We integrated these particles with GaN photodetectors and had enhancement of %50 at the plasmonic resonance of the nano-particles. Secondly, we have fabricated sub-wavelength photodetectors on GaN coupled with linear gratings. We had 8 fold enhancement in the responsivity at the plasmonic resonance frequency of the grating at normal incidence. Numerical simulations revealed that both surface plasmons and the unbound leaky surface waves played a role in the enhancement. We, finally, conducted basic research on the current transport mechanisms in Schottky barriers of AlGaN based materials. Experiments revealed that the tunneling current plays a major role in current transport. In addition incorporation, of a thin insulator between metalsemiconductor interface reduces the undesired surface states thereby improving the device performance.
Surface Plasmon Polariton
Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance