A historical and semantical study of Turkmens and Turkmen tribes
Özalp, F. Esin
Karasar, Hasan Ali
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This work traces the history and the tribal organization of the Turkmen tribes of today’s Turkmenistan. The study covers the period from the beginning of the tenth century up until the Russian conquest of the nineteenth century with a special emphasis given to the very early history of the Oghuz, the early Seljuk Turkmens and lastly the Turkmens under Uzbek Khanates and Persian rule. The aim is to find out how Turkmen tribes, tribal confederations and clans had taken their contemporary shape. Considering the role they played in history, the Oghuz, the forefathers of the Turkmens, enjoy great importance among the various branches of the Turkish people. Thus, in order to accomplish a comprehensive study of the Turkmen people within Turkistan, this work begins with detailed information about the etymology of the word “Turkmen,” the names of the Turkmen tribes, and their structure by relying on the valuable works of the leading ancient scholars. Throughout centuries, the territory which is known to be the Turkmen land witnessed several conquerors; the Oghuz, Seljuks, Mongols, Timurids, Shaybanids, Uzbek Khanates and finally the Russians. By examining these troublesome periods in particular, this work aims to analyze the Turkmen people’s struggle against the Khivan, Persian and Russian dominance, and their tribal structure prior to the Russian conquest.