Relating architecture to social complexity in the early Bronze Age : Southeastern Anatolia
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The relationship of architecture to social complexity is a subject that is often pronounced. This thesis aims to study how architecture relates to social complexity for a particular period and place: for the Early Bronze Age in Southeastern Anatolia. Three sites in the region, Titriş, Kurban, and Lidar are chosen as the case study for this purpose. The sites are studied through an analysis of architectural features, such as planning, access and circulation patterns, and boundary control, in order to understand the nature and degree of complexity. In addition to architecture, burials are studied as indicators of social complexity to provide an independent set of data. Differentiation in size, type, and wealth of the burials are among the main criteria used to evaluate complexity. Other archaeological information, such as seals, pottery, and figurines are also used when necessary and relevant. The results of the study of the burials are then compared to results of the architectural analysis, in order to articulate in what ways they relate. As a conclusion, it is observed that architectural complexity parallels social complexity in all three sites. This conclusion is also confirmed by the instances of the two other sites studied as comparanda: the Ubaid settlement of Değirmentepe in Anatolia as a contrasting case and the Early Bronze Age settlement of Tell Taya in Iraq as a conforming one.