An analytical model of IEEE 80211 DCF for multi-hop wireless networks and its application to goodput and energy analysis
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In this thesis, we present an analytical model for the IEEE 802.11 DCF in multihop networks that considers hidden terminals and works for a large range of traffic loads. A goodput model which considers rate reduction due to collisions, retransmissions and hidden terminals, and an energy model, which considers energy consumption due to collisions, retransmissions, exponential backoff and freezing mechanisms, and overhearing of nodes, are proposed and used to analyze the goodput and energy performance of various routing strategies in IEEE 802.11 DCF based multi-hop wireless networks. Moreover, an adaptive routing algorithm which determines the optimum routing strategy adaptively according to the network and traffic conditions is suggested. Viewed from goodput aspect the results are as follows: Under light traf- fic, arrival rate of packets is dominant, making any routing strategy equivalently optimum. Under moderate traffic, concurrent transmissions dominate and multihop transmissions become more advantageous. At heavy traffic, multi-hoppingbecomes unstable due to increased packet collisions and excessive traffic congestion, and direct transmission increases goodput. From a throughput aspect, it is shown that throughput is topology dependent rather than traffic load dependent, and multi-hopping is optimum for large networks whereas direct transmissions may increase the throughput for small networks. Viewed from energy aspect similar results are obtained: Under light traf- fic, energy spent during idle mode dominates in the energy model, making any routing strategy nearly optimum. Under moderate traffic, energy spent during idle and receive modes dominates and multi-hop transmissions become more advantageous as the optimum hop number varies with processing power consumed at intermediate nodes. At the very heavy traffic conditions, multi-hopping becomes unstable due to increased collisions and direct transmission becomes more energy-efficient.The choice of hop-count in routing strategy is observed to affect energyefficiency and goodput more for large and homogeneous networks where it is possible to use shorter hops each covering similar distances. The results indicate that a cross-layer routing approach, which takes energy expenditure due to MAC contentions into account and dynamically changes the routing strategy according to the network traffic load, can increase goodput by at least 18% and save energy by at least 21% in a realistic wireless network where the network traffic load changes in time. The goodput gain increases up to 222% and energy saving up to 68% for denser networks where multi-hopping with much shorter hops becomes possible.
KeywordsIEEE 802.11 DCF
multi-hop wireless networks
distributed coordination function