Characterization and applications of negative-index metamaterials
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Metamaterials offer novel electromagnetic properties and promising applications including negative refraction, flat-lenses, superlenses, cloaking devices. In this thesis, we characterized the negative-index metamaterials that is composed of periodic arrangements of split-ring resonators (providing negative permeability) and thin wire (providing negative permittivity) arrays. The resonances of split-ring resonators (SRR) are investigated experimentally and theoretically. By combining SRR and wire arrays together, we observed a transmission band where both permittivity and permeability are simultaneously negative, indicating a left-handed behavior. Reflection measurements reveal that the impedance is matched to the free space at a certain frequency range. The lefthanded metamaterial is also shown to exhibit negative refractive index by using three different experimental methods namely, refraction from a wedge-shaped negative-index metamaterial (NIM), beam-shift from a slab-shaped NIM and phase shift from NIMs with different lengths. Flat-lens behavior is observed from a slabshaped negative-index metamaterial based microwave lenses. Furthermore, we demonstrated subwavelength imaging and subwavelength resolution by using thin superlenses constructed from SRR-wire arrays with an effective negative index. We have been able to image a point source with a record-level, λ/8 resolution. SRRand wire arrays exhibit negative index provided that the wave propagates parallel to the plane of SRR structure which makes it hard to fabricate at higher frequencies. An alternative structure called fishnet metamaterial however could yield negative index with wave propagation normal to the structure. We observed left-handed transmission and negative phase velocity in fishnet type metamaterials. Finally, we studied enhanced transmission from a single subwavelength aperture by coupling incident electromagnetic wave to a single SRR placed at the near-field of the aperture.
Split Ring Resonator
TK454.4.M3 A933 2008
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