An Ottoman peace attempt at the Habsburg court during the Ottoman-Holy league war: Zülfikâr Efendi in Vienna, 1688-1693
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The visit of Zülfikar Efendi to the Habsburg court in 1688 was a milestone in Ottoman diplomatic history. The Ottoman system had its own diplomatic means and manners for centuries preceding the 1680s but these methods would function effectively only as long as the Ottomans were strong enough to ignore the strength of their rivals. An empire which for centuries had practiced unilateral and nonreciprocal policy making and implementation in diplomatic affairs was now seeking peace at the court of the Habsburgs, while welcoming Anglo-Dutch mediation. This peace attempt marked the beginning of a new era for the Ottomans. From then on, they started considering the diplomatic rules and procedures followed by the European states in international arena, while this also marked the beginning of Ottomans’ gradual acceptance of European means and manners in many other issues.